Scientific article
Open access

Clinical and Molecular Profiling in GNAO1 Permits Phenotype–Genotype Correlation

Published inMovement disorders, mds.29881
Publication date2024-06-16
First online date2024-06-16


Defects in GNAO1 , the gene encoding the major neuronal G‐protein Gαo, are related to neurodevelopmental disorders, epilepsy, and movement disorders. Nevertheless, there is a poor understanding of how molecular mechanisms explain the different phenotypes.


We aimed to analyze the clinical phenotype and the molecular characterization of GNAO1 ‐related disorders.


Patients were recruited in collaboration with the Spanish GNAO1 Association. For patient phenotyping, direct clinical evaluation, analysis of homemade‐videos, and an online questionnaire completed by families were analyzed. We studied Gαo cellular expression, the interactions of the partner proteins, and binding to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and G‐protein‐coupled receptors (GPCRs).


Eighteen patients with GNAO1 genetic defects had a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, epilepsy, central hypotonia, and movement disorders. Eleven patients showed neurological deterioration, recurrent hyperkinetic crisis with partial recovery, and secondary complications leading to death in three cases. Deep brain stimulation improved hyperkinetic crisis, but had inconsistent benefits in dystonia. The molecular defects caused by pathogenic Gαo were aberrant GTP binding and hydrolysis activities, an inability to interact with cellular binding partners, and reduced coupling to GPCRs. Decreased localization of Gαo in the plasma membrane was correlated with the phenotype of “developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 17.” We observed a genotype–phenotype correlation, pathogenic variants in position 203 were related to developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, whereas those in position 209 were related to neurodevelopmental disorder with involuntary movements. Milder phenotypes were associated with other molecular defects such as del.16q12.2q21 and I344del.


We highlight the complexity of the motor phenotype, which is characterized by fluctuations throughout the day, and hyperkinetic crisis with a distinct post‐hyperkinetic crisis state. We confirm a molecular‐based genotype–phenotype correlation for specific variants. © 2024 The Author(s). Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

Citation (ISO format)
LASA‐ARANZASTI, Amaia et al. Clinical and Molecular Profiling in GNAO1 Permits Phenotype–Genotype Correlation. In: Movement disorders, 2024, p. mds.29881. doi: 10.1002/mds.29881
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal0885-3185

Technical informations

Creation06/17/2024 8:04:22 AM
First validation06/17/2024 8:45:04 AM
Update time06/17/2024 8:45:04 AM
Status update06/17/2024 8:45:04 AM
Last indexation06/17/2024 8:45:25 AM
All rights reserved by Archive ouverte UNIGE and the University of GenevaunigeBlack