Scientific article
Open access

Evaluation of Pupillometry for CYP2D6 Phenotyping in Children Treated with Tramadol

Published inPharmaceuticals, vol. 16, no. 9, 1227
Publication date2023-08-30
First online date2023-08-30

Following the contraindication of codeine use in children, increasing use of tramadol has been observed in pain management protocols. However, tramadol's pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics are influenced by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 activity, similarly to codeine. Previous studies in adults have demonstrated a correlation between pupillary response and tramadol PK. Our objective was to evaluate pupillometry as a phenotyping method to assess CYP2D6 activity in children treated with tramadol. We included 41 children (mean age 11 years) receiving a first dose of tramadol (2 mg/kg) in the emergency room (ER) as part of their routine care. CYP2D6 phenotyping and genotyping were performed. The concentrations of tramadol and its active metabolite, M1, were measured, and static and dynamic pupillometry was conducted using a handheld pupillometer at the time of tramadol administration and during the ER stay. Pupillometric measurements were obtained for 37 children. Tramadol affected pupillary parameters, with a decrease in pupil diameter in 83.8% of children (p= 0.002) (mean decrease 14.1 ± 16.7%) and a decrease in reflex amplitude constriction in 78.4% (p= 0.011) (mean decrease 17.7 ± 34.5%) at T150 compared to T0. We were unable to identify a correlation between pupillometry measurements and CYP2D6 activity. Likely confounding factors include light intensity, pain, and stress, making the procedure less feasible in paediatric emergency settings.

  • CYP2D6
  • Children
  • Genotyping
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Phenotyping
  • Tramadol
Citation (ISO format)
RODIEUX, Frédérique et al. Evaluation of Pupillometry for CYP2D6 Phenotyping in Children Treated with Tramadol. In: Pharmaceuticals, 2023, vol. 16, n° 9, p. 1227. doi: 10.3390/ph16091227
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ISSN of the journal1424-8247

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