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Evolutionary comparison provides evidence for pathogenicity of RMRP mutations

Bonafe, Luisa
Unger, Sheila
Greenberg, C. R.
Campos-Xavier, B. A.
Zankl, Andreas
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Published in PLOS Genetics. 2005, vol. 1, no. 4, e47
Abstract Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a pleiotropic disease caused by recessive mutations in the RMRP gene that result in a wide spectrum of manifestations including short stature, sparse hair, metaphyseal dysplasia, anemia, immune deficiency, and increased incidence of cancer. Molecular diagnosis of CHH has implications for management, prognosis, follow-up, and genetic counseling of affected patients and their families. We report 20 novel mutations in 36 patients with CHH and describe the associated phenotypic spectrum. Given the high mutational heterogeneity (62 mutations reported to date), the high frequency of variations in the region (eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in and around RMRP), and the fact that RMRP is not translated into protein, prediction of mutation pathogenicity is difficult. We addressed this issue by a comparative genomic approach and aligned the genomic sequences of RMRP gene in the entire class of mammals. We found that putative pathogenic mutations are located in highly conserved nucleotides, whereas polymorphisms are located in non-conserved positions. We conclude that the abundance of variations in this small gene is remarkable and at odds with its high conservation through species; it is unclear whether these variations are caused by a high local mutation rate, a failure of repair mechanisms, or a relaxed selective pressure. The marked diversity of mutations in RMRP and the low homozygosity rate in our patient population indicate that CHH is more common than previously estimated, but may go unrecognized because of its variable clinical presentation. Thus, RMRP molecular testing may be indicated in individuals with isolated metaphyseal dysplasia, anemia, or immune dysregulation.
Keywords AnimalsBase SequenceEndoribonucleases/ geneticsEvolution, MolecularFamily HealthGenomeGenomicsHeterozygoteHomozygoteHumansMolecular Sequence DataMutationOsteochondrodysplasias/geneticsPolymorphism, GeneticPromoter Regions, GeneticRNA/ geneticsSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
PMID: 16244706
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BONAFE, Luisa et al. Evolutionary comparison provides evidence for pathogenicity of RMRP mutations. In: PLOS genetics, 2005, vol. 1, n° 4, p. e47. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010047 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:9146

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Deposited on : 2010-07-12

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