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Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension among HIV-Infected Children: Results of a National Survey and Review of the Literature

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Published in Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2015, vol. 3, p. 25
Abstract Since the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, HIV-related mortality has decreased dramatically. As a consequence, patients are living longer, and HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Patients and caretakers have to deal with chronic complications of infection and treatment, such as cardiovascular diseases, which now represent an important health issue, even in the pediatric population. Prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the adult HIV population is around 0.4-0.6%, which is around 1000- to 2500-fold more prevalent than in the general population. In recent adult PAH registries, HIV has been identified as the fourth cause of PAH, accounting for approximately 6-7% of cases. Therefore, regular screening is recommended in HIV-infected adults by many experts. If HIV-associated PAH is mainly reported in HIV-infected adults, pediatric cases have also been, albeit rarely, described. This scarcity may be due to a very low PAH prevalence, or due to the lack of systematic cardiovascular screening in pediatric patients. As PAH may manifest only years or decades after infection, a systematic screening should perhaps also be recommended to HIV-infected children. In this context, we retrospectively looked for PAH screening in children included in our national Swiss Mother and Child HIV cohort study. A questionnaire was sent to all pediatric infectious disease specialists taking care of HIV-infected children in the cohort. The questions tried to identify symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular risk factors and asked which screening test was performed. In the 71 HIV-infected children for which we obtained an answer, no child was known for PAH. However, only two had been screened for PAH, and the diagnosis was not confirmed. In conclusion, PAH in HIV-infected children is possibly underestimated due to lack of screening. Systematic echocardiographic evaluation should be performed in HIV-infected children.
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PMID: 25905096
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Article (Published version) (1.2 MB) - public document Free access
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Research groups L'hypertension pulmonaire (pédiatrie) (228)
Groupe Posfay-Barbe Clara (pédiatrie générale) (853)
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L'HUILLIER, Arnaud et al. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension among HIV-Infected Children: Results of a National Survey and Review of the Literature. In: Frontiers in Pediatrics, 2015, vol. 3, p. 25. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:76058

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Deposited on : 2015-10-13

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