Scientific article
Open access

Human gastrocnemius medialis pennation angle as a function of age: from newborn to the elderly

Publication date2001

The aim of the present study was to quantify changes in human skeletal muscle pennation angle (F theta) values during growth and adult life. The human gastrocnemius medialis muscle of 162 subjects (96 males and 66 females) in the age range 0-70 years was scanned with ultrasonography. The subjects were laying prone, at rest, with the ankle maintained at 90 degrees with all muscles relaxed. F theta increased monotonically starting from birth (0 years) and reached a stable value after the adolescent growth spurt. There was a significant (p < 0.05) linear relationship between F theta and muscle thickness (TK). F theta = 0.84 (+/- 0.09) * TK + 3.15 (+/- 1.13). Human gastrocnemius medialis F theta and TK data found in the literature seem to fit the F theta-TK plot in a coherent manner, independent of the physiological or anatomical characteristics of the subject. The present findings indicate that F theta is not a constant parameter but evolves, as is the case for bone length and height, as a function of age.

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle, Skeletal/anatomy & histology/physiology/ultrasonography
  • Regression Analysis
Citation (ISO format)
BINZONI, Tiziano et al. Human gastrocnemius medialis pennation angle as a function of age: from newborn to the elderly. In: Journal of physiological anthropology and applied human science, 2001, vol. 20, n° 5, p. 293–298. doi: 10.2114/jpa.20.293
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1345-3475

Technical informations

Creation05/06/2015 10:57:00 AM
First validation05/06/2015 10:57:00 AM
Update time03/14/2023 11:18:42 PM
Status update03/14/2023 11:18:41 PM
Last indexation01/16/2024 6:04:17 PM
All rights reserved by Archive ouverte UNIGE and the University of GenevaunigeBlack