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GAD65-mediated glutamate decarboxylation reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells

Hegardt, F G
Published in The Journal of biological chemistry. 2001, vol. 276, no. 39, p. 36391-6
Abstract Mitochondrial metabolism plays a pivotal role in the pancreatic beta cell by generating signals that couple glucose sensing to insulin secretion. We have demonstrated previously that mitochondrially derived glutamate participates directly in the stimulation of insulin exocytosis. The aim of the present study was to impose altered cellular glutamate levels by overexpression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) to repress elevation of cytosolic glutamate. INS-1E cells infected with a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding GAD65 showed efficient overexpression of the GAD protein with a parallel increase in enzyme activity. In control cells glutamate levels were slightly increased by 7.5 mm glucose (1.4-fold) compared with the effect at 15 mm (2.3-fold) versus basal 2.5 mm glucose. Upon GAD overexpression, glutamate concentrations were no longer elevated by 15 mm glucose as compared with controls (-40%). Insulin secretion was stimulated in control cells by glucose at 7.5 mm (2.5-fold) and more efficiently at 15 mm (5.2-fold). INS-1E cells overexpressing GAD exhibited impaired insulin secretion on stimulation with 15 mm glucose (-37%). The secretory response to 30 mm KCl, used to raise cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, was unaffected. Similar results were obtained in perifused rat pancreatic islets following adenovirus transduction. This GAD65-mediated glutamate decarboxylation correlating with impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion is compatible with a role for glutamate as a glucose-derived factor participating in insulin exocytosis.
Keywords Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolismAdenoviridae/geneticsAnimalsCalcium/metabolismCells, CulturedCytosol/metabolismExocytosisGlucose/metabolismGlutamate Decarboxylase/metabolismGlutamates/metabolismGlutamic Acid/metabolismHumansImmunoblottingInsulin/metabolism/secretionIslets of Langerhans/cytology/metabolismIsoenzymes/metabolismMembrane PotentialsMicroscopy, FluorescenceMitochondria/metabolismProtein BindingRatsRecombinant Proteins/metabolismTime FactorsTransduction, GeneticTumor Cells, Cultured
PMID: 11473118
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RUBI, Blanca et al. GAD65-mediated glutamate decarboxylation reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 2001, vol. 276, n° 39, p. 36391-6. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M104999200 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:35183

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Deposited on : 2014-04-01

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