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Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation during a range expansion

Mona, Stefano
Arenas, Miguel
Published in Heredity. 2014, vol. 112, no. 3, p. 291-9
Abstract We investigate the effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity of a species experiencing a range expansion. These two evolutionary processes have not been studied yet, at the same time, owing to the difficulties of deriving analytic results for non-equilibrium models. Here we provide a description of their interaction by using extensive spatial and temporal coalescent simulations and we suggest guidelines for a proper genetic sampling to detect fragmentation. To model habitat fragmentation, we simulated a two-dimensional lattice of demes partitioned into groups (patches) by adding barriers to dispersal. After letting a population expand on this grid, we sampled lineages from the lattice at several scales and studied their coalescent history. We find that in order to detect fragmentation, one needs to extensively sample at a local level rather than at a landscape level. This is because the gene genealogy of a scattered sample is less sensitive to the presence of genetic barriers. Considering the effect of temporal changes of fragmentation intensities, we find that at least 10, but often >100, generations are needed to affect local genetic diversity and population structure. This result explains why recent habitat fragmentation does not always lead to detectable signatures in the genetic structure of populations. Finally, as expected, long-distance dispersal increases local genetic diversity and decreases levels of population differentiation, efficiently counteracting the effects of fragmentation.
Keywords Range expansionFragmentationSurfingLong-distance dispersalCoalescent simulation
PMID: 24149654
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Research groups TIGERS
Envirospace Lab
ISE Pôle Sciences
ISE Pôle Informatique environnementale
ISE Biodiversité
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MONA, Stefano et al. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation during a range expansion. In: Heredity, 2014, vol. 112, n° 3, p. 291-9. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:34393

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Deposited on : 2014-02-21

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