UNIGE document Scientific Article - Meta-analysis
previous document  unige:25507  next document
add to browser collection

From pancreatic islets to central nervous system, the importance of glutamate dehydrogenase for the control of energy homeostasis

Published in Neurochemistry international. 2011, vol. 59, no. 4, p. 510-7
Abstract Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme linking the Krebs cycle to the multifunctional amino acid glutamate. Thereby, GDH plays a pivotal role between carbohydrate and protein metabolisms, controlling production and consumption of the messenger molecule glutamate in neuroendocrine cells. GDH activity is under the control of several regulators, conferring to this enzyme energy-sensor property. Indeed, GDH directly depends on the provision of the co-factor NADH/NAD(+), rendering the enzyme sensitive to the redox status of the cell. Moreover, GDH is allosterically regulated by GTP and ADP. GDH is also regulated by ADP-ribosylation, mediated by a member of the energy-sensor family sirtuins, namely SIRT4. In the brain, GDH ensures the cycling of the neurotransmitter glutamate between neurons and astrocytes. GDH also controls ammonia metabolism and detoxification, mainly in the liver and kidney. In pancreatic β-cells, the importance of GDH as a key enzyme in the regulation of insulin secretion is now well established. Inhibition of GDH activity decreases insulin release, while activating mutations are associated with a hyperinsulinism syndrome. Although GDH enzyme catalyzes the same reaction in every tissue, its function regarding metabolic homeostasis varies greatly according to specific organs. In this review, we will discuss specificities of GDH regulation in neuroendocrine cells, in particular pancreatic islets and central nervous system.
Keywords AnimalsCentral Nervous System/enzymologyEnergy Metabolism/physiologyGlutamate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism/physiologyHomeostasis/physiologyHumansIslets of Langerhans/enzymologyMitochondria/metabolism
PMID: 21600947
Full text
Article (Published version) (689 Kb) - document accessible for UNIGE members only Limited access to UNIGE
Research group Mitochondries et métabolisme énergétique (671)
(ISO format)
KARACA EMRE, Melis, FRIGERIO, Francesca, MAECHLER, Pierre. From pancreatic islets to central nervous system, the importance of glutamate dehydrogenase for the control of energy homeostasis. In: Neurochemistry international, 2011, vol. 59, n° 4, p. 510-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2011.03.024 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:25507

501 hits



Deposited on : 2013-01-14

Export document
Format :
Citation style :