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Scientific article
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Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Mesozoic Pucará Basin, central Peru

Published inJournal of South American earth sciences, vol. 24, no. 1, p. 1-24
Publication date2007
Abstract

The Pucara´ Basin of Peru is an elongate trough that subsided landward of a NNW-trending structural high during the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic. It formed as a postrift regional sag as the earlier Triassic fault-controlled Mitu rifts yoked together. The rift and transitional postrift basins were associated with a NW-striking sinistral shear zone that controlled isopachs and facies distributions and resulted in magmatism and mineralization along its trend. A distinct association of later dolomitization and MVT lead–zinc mineralization also occurs with these basin-forming shear zones. Although basaltic and andesitic extrusives are common, there is no evidence that the Pacific margin was a magmatic arc until the upper Pucara´, and then only weakly developed in northern Peru. Except in the upper Pucara´ of northwest Peru, geochemical studies, including whole rock and trace element analyses, indicate that intercalations of volcanic material have intraplate rift affinities. The basin fill has a three-part stratigraphic subdivision, comprising lower and upper carbonate platforms with an intermediate phase of basin overdeepening and sediment starvation that resulted in a regional, organic-rich argillaceous drape. Stratigraphic accumulation was dominated by axial patterns of onlap and progradation, though facies characteristics show it was augmented by periodic flooding of the western basin margin high. Marine invertebrate fossils indicate normal marine salinities. The sedimentological interpretation is based on a SW–NE transect in the southern part of the Pucara´ Basin. The Chambara´ (Norian–Rhaetian) and Condorsinga (Toarcian) formations were constructed principally by shallow-water carbonate sedimentation in lagoon-like subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal paleoenvironments. The subtidal carbonate platform is dominated by oolitic grainstones with subordinate bioclastic packstones. Subordinate open-basin facies in the Chambara´ Formation consist principally of crinoidal packstones and bioclastic wackestones. In the intertidal and supratidal facies, evaporite pseudomorphs are common and generally associated with algal mats and widespread early diagenetic dolomitization. During the Chambara´ and Condorsinga, subsidence typically was balanced by carbonate production and shallow-water environments prevailed; the basin had the characteristics of an overfilled basin. Conversely, the intermediate late Rhaetian–Sinemurian stage of basin subsidence was marked by underfilled deep water conditions. This widespread transgressive inundation of the Pucara´ Basin, recorded in the argillaceous Aramachay stratigraphy, correlates with similar events in other Andean basins.

Keywords
  • Triassic
  • Jurassic
  • Pucara Group
  • Central Peru
  • Paleogeography
  • Tectonic evolution
  • Sedimentary facies
Citation (ISO format)
ROSAS, Silvia, FONTBOTÉ, Lluís, TANKARD, Anthony. Tectonic evolution and paleogeography of the Mesozoic Pucará Basin, central Peru. In: Journal of South American earth sciences, 2007, vol. 24, n° 1, p. 1–24. doi: 10.1016/j.jsames.2007.03.002
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ISSN of the journal0895-9811
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