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Scientific article
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Quantification of titanium and zirconium elements in oral mucosa around healthy dental implants : a case-control pilot study

Published inClinical oral investigations, vol. 27, no. 8, p. 4715-4726
Publication date2023-08
First online date2023-06-04
Abstract

Objectives: Metallic particles are detected in different sites of the oral cavity, mainly in patients with peri-implantitis lesions. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the levels of titanium and zirconium elements in the oral mucosa around healthy implants and to investigate the impact of titanium exogenous contamination on the measurements.

Materials and methods: Forty-one participants were included in this three-phase study. Two groups of subjects were defined according to presence of titanium or zirconia implants (n: 20) or without any implants nor metallic restorations (n:21). Thirteen patients (n: 5 with zirconia implant; n: 3 with titanium implants; n: 5 control group) took part to the first part designed to optimize and validate the method of detecting titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) elements in the oral mucosa and gingival tissues by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). The second phase compared the levels of Ti and Zr concentrations in patients with implants (n: 12) and without implants (n: 6) who were controlled for their intake of titanium dioxide (TiO2). The last step included ten control subjects without any metallic devices to measure the concentration of Ti and Zr before and after having candies containing TiO2.

Results: In the first phase, concentrations of Ti and Zr were below the limit of detection (LOD) in most cases, 0.18 μg/L and 0.07 μg/L respectively. In the titanium group, two out of three subjects displayed concentrations above the LOD, 0.21 μg/L and 0.66 μg/L. Zr element was only found in patients with zirconia implants. After controlling the intake of TiO2, all concentrations of Ti and Zr were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). Moreover, in patients with no implants, the Ti concentration in gingiva cells was superior for 75% of the samples after having a TiO2 diet.

Conclusions: Zirconium was only found in patients with zirconia implants, whereas titanium was detected in all groups even in subjects with no titanium implants. Zirconium and titanium elements were not detected in patients who were controlled for their intake of food and their use of toothpaste irrespective of the presence of implants or not. For 70% of the patients, the titanium detection was directly influenced by the intake of TiO2 contained candies.

Clinical relevance: When analyzing titanium particles, it is necessary to pay attention to the risk of contamination bias brought by external products. When this parameter was controlled, no titanium particles were detected around clinically healthy implants.

eng
Keywords
  • Case–control
  • Dental implants
  • Spectrophotometry 3
  • Titanium 1
  • Zirconium 2
  • Humans
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology
  • Dental Implants / adverse effects
  • Zirconium
  • Pilot Projects
Citation (ISO format)
CIONCA, Norbert et al. Quantification of titanium and zirconium elements in oral mucosa around healthy dental implants : a case-control pilot study. In: Clinical oral investigations, 2023, vol. 27, n° 8, p. 4715–4726. doi: 10.1007/s00784-023-05099-8
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ISSN of the journal1432-6981
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