en
Scientific article
Open access
English

2022 EULAR recommendations for screening and prophylaxis of chronic and opportunistic infections in adults with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases

Published inAnnals of the rheumatic diseases, vol. 82, no. 6, 742-753
Publication date2022-11-03
First online date2022-11-03
Abstract

Objectives: To develop EULAR recommendations for screening and prophylaxis of chronic and opportunistic infections in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD).

Methods: An international Task Force (TF) (22 members/15 countries) formulated recommendations, supported by systematic literature review findings. Level of evidence and grade of recommendation were assigned for each recommendation. Level of agreement was provided anonymously by each TF member.

Results: Four overarching principles (OAP) and eight recommendations were developed. The OAPs highlight the need for infections to be discussed with patients and with other medical specialties, in accordance with national regulations. In addition to biologic/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for which screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) should be performed, screening could be considered also before conventional synthetic DMARDs, glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants. Interferon gamma release assay should be preferred over tuberculin skin test, where available. Hepatitis B (HBV) antiviral treatment should be guided by HBV status defined prior to starting antirheumatic drugs. All patients positive for hepatitis-C-RNA should be referred for antiviral treatment. Also, patients who are non-immune to varicella zoster virus should be informed about the availability of postexposure prophylaxis should they have contact with this pathogen. Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii seems to be beneficial in patients treated with daily doses >15-30 mg of prednisolone or equivalent for >2-4 weeks.

Conclusions: These recommendations provide guidance on the screening and prevention of chronic and opportunistic infections. Their adoption in clinical practice is recommended to standardise and optimise care to reduce the burden of opportunistic infections in people living with AIIRD.

eng
Keywords
  • Antirheumatic Agents
  • Autoimmune Diseases
  • Tuberculosis
  • Adult
  • Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis
  • Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control
  • Rheumatic Diseases / complications
  • Rheumatic Diseases / drug therapy
Citation (ISO format)
FRAGOULIS, George E et al. 2022 EULAR recommendations for screening and prophylaxis of chronic and opportunistic infections in adults with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In: Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 2022, vol. 82, n° 6, p. 742–753. doi: 10.1136/ard-2022-223335
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Identifiers
ISSN of the journal0003-4967
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