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Scientific article
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Psychometric properties and correlates of precarious manhood beliefs in 62 nations

ContributorsBosson, Jennifer K.; Jurek, Paweł; Vandello, Joseph A.; Kosakowska-Berezecka, Natasza; Olech, Michał; Besta, Tomasz; Bender, Michael; Hoorens, Vera; Becker, Maja; Timur Sevincer, A.; Best, Deborah L.; Safdar, Saba; Włodarczyk, Anna; Zawisza, Magdalena; Żadkowska, Magdalena; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Badu Agyemang, Collins; Akbaş, Gülçin; Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan; Ammirati, Soline; Anderson, Joel; Anjum, Gulnaz; Ariyanto, Amarina; Jamir Benzon R. Aruta, John; Ashraf, Mujeeba; Bakaitytė, Aistė; Bertolli, Chiara; Bërxulli, Dashamir; Bi, Chongzeng; Block, Katharina; Boehnke, Mandy; Bongiorno, Renata; Bosak, Janine; Casini, Annalisa; Chen, Qingwei; Chi, Peilian; Cubela Adoric, Vera; Daalmans, Serena; Dandy, Justine; Lemus, Soledad de; Dhakal, Sandesh; Dvorianchikov, Nikolay; Egami, Sonoko; Etchezahar, Edgardo; Sofia Esteves, Carla; Felix, Neto; Froehlich, Laura; Garcia-Sanchez, Efrain; Gavreliuc, Alin; Gavreliuc, Dana; Gomez, Ángel; Guizzo, Francesca; Graf, Sylvie; Greijdanus, Hedy; Grigoryan, Ani; Grzymała-Moszczyńska, Joanna; Guerch, Keltouma; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Hale, Miriam-Linnea; Hämer, Hannah; Hirai, Mika; Hoang Duc, Lam; Hřebíčková, Martina; Hutchings, Paul B.; Høj Jensen, Dorthe; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Karabati, Serdar; Kelmendi, Kaltrina; Kengyel, Gabriella; Khachatryan, Narine; Ghazzawi, Rawan; Kinahan, Mary; Kirby, Teri A.; Kovács, Monika; Kozlowski, Desiree; Krivoshchekov, Vladislav; Kulich, Claraorcid; Kurosawa, Tai; Thi Lac An, Nhan; Labarthe, Javier; Latu, Ioana; Anne Lauri, Mary; Mankowski, Eric; Musbau Lawal, Abiodun; Li, Junyi; Lindner, Jana; Lindqvist, Anna; Maitner, Angela T.; Makarova, Elena; Makashvili, Ana; Malayeri, Shera; Malik, Sadia; Mancini, Tiziana; Manzi, Claudia; Mari, Silvia; Martiny, Sarah E.; Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Mihić, Vladimir; Milošević Đorđević, Jasna; Moreno-Bella, Eva; Moscatelli, Silvia; Bryan Moynihan, Andrew; Muller, Dominique; Narhetali, Erita; Neto, Félix; Noels, Kimberly A.; Nyúl, Boglárka; O'Connor, Emma C.; Ochoa, Danielle P.; Ohno, Sachiko; Olanrewaju Adebayo, Sulaiman; Osborne, Randall; Giuseppina Pacilli, Maria; Palacio, Jorge; Patnaik, Snigdha; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Pérez de León, Pablo; Piterová, Ivana; Barreiros Porto, Juliana; Puzio, Angelica; Pyrkosz-Pacyna, Joanna; Rentería Pérez, Erico; Renström, Emma; Rousseaux, Tiphaine; Ryan, Michelle K.; Sainz, Mario; Salvati, Marco; Samekin, Adil; Schindler, Simon; Seydi, Masoumeh; Shepherd, Debra; Sherbaji, Sara; Schmader, Toni; Simão, Cláudia; Sobhie, Rosita; Souza, Lucille De; Sarter, Emma; Sulejmanović, Dijana; Sullivan, Katie E.; Tatsumi, Mariko; Tavitian-Elmadjian, Lucy; Jain Thakur, Suparna; Thi Mong Chi, Quang; Torre, Beatriz; Torres, Ana; Torres, Claudio V.; Türkoğlu, Beril; Ungaretti, Joaquín; Valshtein, Timothy; Van Laar, Colette; van der Noll, Jolanda; Vasiutynskyi, Vadym; Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Venäläinen, Satu; Vohra, Neharika; Walentynowicz, Marta; Ward, Colleen; Yang, Yaping; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Zanello, Valeska; Ludmila Zapata-Calvente, Antonella; Žukauskienė, Rita
Published inJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 52, no. 3, p. 231-258
Publication date2021
Abstract

Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Here, we present cross-cultural data on a brief measure of precarious manhood beliefs (the Precarious Manhood Beliefs scale [PMB]) that covaries meaningfully with other cross-culturally validated gender ideologies and with country- level indices of gender equality and human development. Using data from university samples in 62 countries across 13 world regions (N=33,417), we demonstrate: (1) the psychometric isomorphism of the PMB (i.e., its comparability in meaning and statistical properties across the individual and country levels); (2) the PMB's distinctness from, and associations with, ambivalent sexism and ambivalence toward men; and (3) associations of the PMB with nation- level gender equality and human development. Findings are discussed in terms of their statistical and theoretical implications for understanding widely-held beliefs about the precariousness of the male gender role.

Keywords
  • Psychometric isomorphism
  • Precarious manhood beliefs
  • Ambivalent sexism
  • Ambivalence toward men
Citation (ISO format)
BOSSON, Jennifer K. et al. Psychometric properties and correlates of precarious manhood beliefs in 62 nations. In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2021, vol. 52, n° 3, p. 231–258. doi: 10.1177/0022022121997997
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ISSN of the journal0022-0221
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