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Morphine 6-Glucuronide and Morphine 3-Glucuronide As Molecular Chameleons with Unexpected Lipophilicity

Testa, Bernard
Bechalany, A.
el Tayar, Nabil
Descas, P.
Perrissoud, D.
Published in Journal of medicinal chemistry. 1991, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 1272-1275
Abstract Morphine 6-glucuronide, but not morphine 3-glucuronide, is a highly potent opiate receptor agonist. In fact, there is converging evidence that much of the analgesic effect occurring after morphine treatment in humans is due to this metabolite rather than to the parent drug. Yet glucuronides as a rule are considered as highly polar metabolites unable to cross the blood-brain barrier and rapidly excreted by the urinary and/or biliary routes. Here, we report that morphine 6-glucuronide, and to a lesser extent morphine 3-glucuronide, are far more lipophilic than predicted, and in fact not much less lipophilic than morphine itself. Force-field and quantum mechanical calculations indicate that the two glucuronides can exist in conformational equilibrium between extended and folded forms. The extended conformers, because they efficiently expose their polar groups, must be highly hydrophilic forms predominating in polar media such as water; in contrast, the folded conformers mask part of their polar groups, thus being more lipophilic and likely to predominate in media of low polarity such as biological membranes
Keywords CalorimetryComputer GraphicsIndicators and ReagentsModels, MolecularMolecular ConformationMorphine Derivatives/chemical synthesis/*chemistry
PMID: 2016703
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CARRUPT, Pierre-Alain et al. Morphine 6-Glucuronide and Morphine 3-Glucuronide As Molecular Chameleons with Unexpected Lipophilicity. In: Journal of medicinal chemistry, 1991, vol. 34, n° 4, p. 1272-1275. doi: 10.1021/jm00108a005

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Deposited on : 2010-08-06

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