Scientific article
Open access

Immunological Basis of Bone Marrow Failure after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Published inFrontiers in Immunology, vol. 7, 362
Publication date2016

Bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes are severe complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). In this paper, we distinguish two different entities, the graft failure (GF) and the poor graft function (PGF), and we review the current understanding of the interactions between the immune and hematopoietic compartments in these conditions. We first discuss how GF occurs as the result of classical alloreactive immune responses mediated by residual host cellular and humoral immunity persisting after conditioning and prevented by host and donor regulatory T cells. We next summarize the current knowledge about the contribution of inflammatory mediators to the development of PGF. In situations of chronic inflammation complicating allo-HSCT, such as graft-versus-host disease or infections, PGF seems to be essentially the result of a sustained impairment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) self-renewal and proliferation caused by inflammatory mediators, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α, and of induction of apoptosis through the Fas/Fas ligand pathway. Interestingly, the production of inflammatory molecules leads to a non-MHC restricted, bystander inhibition of hematopoiesis, therefore, representing a promising target for immunological interventions. Finally, we discuss immune-mediated impairment of bone marrow microenvironment as a potential mechanism hampering hematopoietic recovery. Better understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for BMF syndromes after allo-HSCT may lead to the development of more efficient immunotherapeutic interventions.

Citation (ISO format)
MASOURIDI LEVRAT, Stavroula, SIMONETTA, Federico, CHALANDON, Yves. Immunological Basis of Bone Marrow Failure after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. In: Frontiers in Immunology, 2016, vol. 7, p. 362. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00362
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Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1664-3224

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