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Scientific article
English

DNA deamination enables direct PCR amplification of the cystatin B (CSTB) gene-associated dodecamer repeat expansion in myoclonus epilepsy type Unverricht-Lundborg

Published inHuman mutation, vol. 22, no. 5, p. 404-408
Publication date2003
Abstract

The Unverricht-Lundborg type of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by the dysfunction of the cystatin B (CSTB) gene product. In the vast majority of affected cases, mRNA transcription is impaired by a biallelic expansion of a dodecamer repeat within the 5'-untranslated region of the respective gene. Since this minisatellite contains exclusively G and C nucleotides, direct PCR analysis of allele expansion is extremely difficult and error prone. To circumvent these problems, we have developed a PCR assay that is based on the deamination of the DNA prior to amplification. We have developed a method based on PCR after DNA deamination of the GC-rich repeat region, which improves the PCR condition to such an extent that we were not only able to reliably amplify expanded alleles of affected individuals (homozygotes and compound heterozygotes), but also the two alleles of full mutation carriers, whose analysis is particularly difficult because of PCR bias and heteroduplex formation between the two alleles. We used promoter- and repeat-specific primer combinations to investigate whether dodecamer repeat expansion concurs with de novo methylation of the CSTB gene promoter in a similar fashion to other repeat expansion syndromes. We confirmed previous evidence obtained by HpaII digestion and Southern blot analysis that both the promoter and the repeat regions are unmethylated, in both healthy and affected individuals. Thus, in contrast to certain trinucleotide repeat expansion-associated diseases, such as fragile X syndrome (FRAXA) and myotonic dystrophy, methylation analyses can not be utilized for indirect diagnostic testing.

Keywords
  • Cystatin B
  • Cystatins/ genetics
  • DNA/chemistry
  • DNA Mutational Analysis/ methods
  • DNA Repeat Expansion
  • Deamination
  • GC Rich Sequence
  • Humans
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction/ methods
  • Unverricht-Lundborg Syndrome/ genetics
Citation (ISO format)
WEINHAEUSEL, Andreas et al. DNA deamination enables direct PCR amplification of the cystatin B (CSTB) gene-associated dodecamer repeat expansion in myoclonus epilepsy type Unverricht-Lundborg. In: Human mutation, 2003, vol. 22, n° 5, p. 404–408. doi: 10.1002/humu.10276
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ISSN of the journal1059-7794
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