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NADPH oxidases in Microglia oxidant production: Activating Receptors, Pharmacology, and Association with Disease

Published inBritish journal of pharmacology, vol. 174, no. 12, p. 1733-1749
Publication date2017
Abstract

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and constitute a self-sustaining population of CNS-adapted tissue macrophages. As mononuclear phagocytic cells, they express high levels of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX). The sole function of members of the NOX family is to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are believed to be important in CNS host defense and in the redox signaling circuits that shape the different activation phenotypes of microglia. NOX are also important in pathological conditions, wherein over-generation of ROS contributes to neuronal loss via direct oxidative tissue damage. In this review, we assess the evidence for involvement of NOX in CNS physiopathology, with particular emphasis on the most important surface receptors that lead to generation of NOX-derived ROS. We evaluate the potential significance of the subcellular distribution of NOX isoforms for redox signaling, or release of ROS to the extracellular medium. Inhibitory mechanisms that have been reported to restrain NOX activity in microglia and macrophages in vivo are also discussed. We provide a critical appraisal of frequently-used and recently-developed NOX inhibitors. Finally, we review the recent literature on NOX and other sources of ROS that are involved in activation of the inflammasome and discuss the potential influence of microglia-derived oxidants on neurogenesis, neural differentiation and culling of surplus progenitor cells. The degree to which excessive, badly-timed, or misplaced NOX activation in microglia may affect neuronal homeostasis in physiological or pathological conditions certainly merits further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Citation (ISO format)
HASLUND-VINDING, Jepper Lohfert et al. NADPH oxidases in Microglia oxidant production: Activating Receptors, Pharmacology, and Association with Disease. In: British journal of pharmacology, 2017, vol. 174, n° 12, p. 1733–1749. doi: 10.1111/bph.13425
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