Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Definition is based on the estimation of the glomerular filtration rate by different equations using the serum creatinine or albuminuria. Those are considered as classical markers of kidney function. Renal ultrasound is also a tool to detect kidney disease either by identifying some structural anomaly or by indicating increased renal resistive indexes using the doppler. Finally other markers can add information on kidney disease by indicating pathological pathways instead of simply providing information on the glomerular filtration rate. In this thesis, we presented the prevalence and determinants of CKD in Switzerland. We also provided references values and determinants for renal length and renal resistive index measured by the ultrasound. We finally analysed some markers of the kidney function focusing on (i) the mineral metabolism, (ii) water balance and (iii) tubular function by studying FGF23, copeptin and uromodulin, respectively.