Scientific article

Application of in vivo confocal microscopy to the objective evaluation of ocular irritation induced by surfactants

Published inInternational journal of pharmaceutics, vol. 207, no. 1-2, p. 89-98
Publication date2000

An ocular irritation test using confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy has been developed in which corneal lesions subsequent to instillation of surfactants are specifically marked by fluorescein and assessed by digital image processing. The sum of the observed fluorescent corneal areas is taken into account as an endpoint of ocular irritation. Eight currently used nonionic, cationic and anionic surfactants were applied onto the cornea of rabbits and mice, four times per day during 3 days at various concentrations. Benzalkonium chloride, a cationic surfactant, at a concentration range of 0.01-0.5%, was tested in the same manner. The cornea was evaluated in vivo for ocular tolerance by confocal microscopy. In both rabbits and mice, the test revealed following irritation rankings: cationic>anionic>nonionic surfactants. Furthermore, in both animal models, the ocular damage increased with the concentration of benzalkonium. The test was sensitive enough to detect ocular microlesions at concentrations of surfactants as low as 0.01% for benzalkonium. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of confocal microscopy for the non-invasive, in situ evaluation of ocular tolerance.

  • Confocal microscopy
  • Cornea
  • Draize eye test
  • Surfactants
  • Preservatives
  • Image analysis
Citation (ISO format)
FURRER, Pascal et al. Application of in vivo confocal microscopy to the objective evaluation of ocular irritation induced by surfactants. In: International journal of pharmaceutics, 2000, vol. 207, n° 1-2, p. 89–98.
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal0378-5173

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