The pathophysiology of some inflammatory arterial diseases (such as vasculitis, atherogenesis and aneurysms) has been widely investigated in the last decades. Among different soluble molecules, proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) were shown to trigger critical pathways regulating these arterial diseases. Together with these cytokines, chemokines were also associated with endothelial dysfunction and intima injury in arterial diseases. Recently, autoantibodies have been also described to pathophysiologically influence not only autoimmune vasculitis but also atherogenesis and more in general vascular inflammation. These soluble mediators actively trigger inflammatory functions of leukocytes and vascular cells. For instance, B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils were shown to actively participate in inflammatory processes within the arterial wall in vasculitis, atherogenesis and aneurysms. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of pathophysiology and treatments targeting arterial inflammation in these diseases.