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Characterization of Triassic Rifting in Peru and implications for the early disassembly of western Pangaea

Reitsma, M.J.
Boekhout, F.
Mišković, A.
Gerdes, A.
Published in Gondwana research. 2016, vol. 35, p. 124-143
Abstract Triassic igneous and sedimentary rocks exposed within the basement of the Andes were deposited in a series of rifts, and may record the early disassembly of western Pangaea. These rocks are sporadically exposed along almost the entire length of western South America, although reliable geochronological and isotopic data are sparse. We combine new geochronological (zircon U-Pb), isotopic (Hf, Nd) and geochemical data with stratigraphic observations to constrain the age and tectonic setting of the Mitu Rift of southern Peru. The Peruvian Mitu Rift is compared with other Triassic rifts in Colombia and Ecuador (Palanda Rift; 240 - 225 Ma), Bolivia (Mitu Rift; Triassic), Bolivia, Chile and Argentina (e.g. Cuyo Basin; 246 – 230 Ma), and conclusions are reached regarding the relationship between Triassic extension along the western margin of Pangaea, and the eventual formation of the Proto-Caribbean and Central Atlantic oceans. The Mitu Rift (Peru) was active during ~245 – 240 to ~220 Ma and was synchronous with rifting along the Pacific margin of Colombia and Ecuador, along the Chilean margin and western Argentina, and probably rifting within Bolivia. Rifting north of the Huancabamba Deflection was accompanied by subduction and led to seafloor spreading, whereas rifting along the Peruvian and Chilean margins mainly occurred in the absence of subduction and terminated prior to the formation of extensive transitional crust. Extension within Peru and Chile probably occurred via a combination of transtension, steepening and detachment of an arrested slab. We propose that plate tectonic forces initiated the early break-up of Pangaea by attenuating its margins and enhancing mantle upwelling. Prolonged extension may have propagated along pre-existing weak zones that extended into the continental interior, captured melts derived from the upwelled mantle forming a LIP (e.g. Central Atlantic Magmatic Province), became hot and weak and eventually lead to the formation of a juvenile ocean (e.g. Central Atlantic).
Keywords PangaeaSouth AmericaTriassic riftsGeochronologyGeochemistryMitu Group
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Swiss National Science Foundation: 200020-116572
Swiss National Science Foundation: 200020_116572 and 200020_124332.
(ISO format)
SPIKINGS, Richard Alan et al. Characterization of Triassic Rifting in Peru and implications for the early disassembly of western Pangaea. In: Gondwana research, 2016, vol. 35, p. 124-143. doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2016.02.008 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:83355

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Deposited on : 2016-04-25

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