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Scientific article
English

Iodine-containing cellulose mixed esters as radiopaque polymers for direct embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations

Published inBiomaterials, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 121-131
Publication date2002
Abstract

The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of radiopaque polymers which could, when solubilized in an appropriate water-miscible solvent, be useful embolic materials for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. For this purpose cellulose (both microcrystalline and powdered) and partially substituted cellulose acetate (two different viscosity grades) were selected as starting materials to prepare iodine-containing polymers through various synthetic routes. The materials obtained were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy, molecular weight, iodine content, radiopacity and solubility in selected injectable organic solvents. The embolic liquids were evaluated for their precipitation behavior in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) mimicking physiological conditions using an in vitro aneurysm model. A sheep model was also used to assess in vivo the radiopacity and precipitation properties of a highly concentrated solution of a cellulose acetate 2,3,4-triiodobenzoate mixed ester. All materials with 4-iodo- and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoyl groups gave sufficient radiopacity to be regarded as possible embolization materials, whereas iododeoxycellulose and iododeoxycellulose acetate were not radiopaque because of their low iodine content. Esters synthesized using cellulose as starting material were not soluble in the selected organic solvents due to the presence of many residual hydroxyl groups, but could be used for other biomedical applications where insoluble radiopaque materials are used. In contrast, solubility of the materials as well as satisfactory precipitation properties were ensured using cellulose acetate as the starting material. In conclusion, cellulose acetate iodobenzoate mixed esters dissolved in diglyme or dimethyl isosorbide (dimethyl sulfoxide is probably less appropriate because of its toxicity and hemolytic properties) could be useful embolic liquids for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations.

Keywords
  • Embolization
  • Embolic liquids
  • Aneurysms
  • Arteriovenous malformations
  • Cellulose esters
  • Iodine-containing cellulose mixed esters
  • Cellulose acetate iodobenzoates
  • Radiopacity
Citation (ISO format)
MOTTU DEL RIZZO, Florence et al. Iodine-containing cellulose mixed esters as radiopaque polymers for direct embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. In: Biomaterials, 2002, vol. 23, n° 1, p. 121–131. doi: 10.1016/S0142-9612(01)00087-4
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ISSN of the journal0142-9612
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