Strain and Structural Effects on Rates of Formation and Stability of Tertiary Carbenium Ions in the Light of Molecular Mechanics Calculations
|Published in||Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry. 1995, vol. 8, no. 8, p. 507-528|
|Abstract||An empirical MM2 force-field was developed for the calculation of steric or strain energies of carbenium ions, and applied to the rationalization of the rates of solvolysis of bridgehead derivatives. The latter constitute a homogeneous series of model compounds for solvolysis, spanning a rate range of ca 20 log units. Their rate constants correlate with the calculated steric energy differences between bridgehead bromides and the corresponding carbenium ions. The rate constants of tertiary derivatives of general structure may similarly be rationalized in terms of strain changes, although the correlation exhibits more scatter than that for the bridgehead derivatives alone. In the bridgehead series, the relative free energies of activation for solvolysis correlate with the heterolytic bond dissociation energies D° (R+ - Br-) in the gas phase. However, this correlation breaks down when simple mono- and acyclic substrates are included. This is attributed in part to the proximity of the leaving group in the transition state of solvolysis, which stabilizes the developing positive charge at the cationic centre in comparison with the charge of the free ion. The significance of the force-field calculations with respect to the structure of bridgehead carbenium ions was tested by comparison of structural data obtained from ab initio calculations. The structures of cations suffering strong distortions owing to C-C hyperconjugation are poorly reproduced by the molecular mechanics calculations, the parameters of which are based on solvolytic reactivity and not on carbenium ions.|
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|MULLER, Paul, MAREDA, Jiri, MILIN, Didier. Strain and Structural Effects on Rates of Formation and Stability of Tertiary Carbenium Ions in the Light of Molecular Mechanics Calculations. In: Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry, 1995, vol. 8, n° 8, p. 507-528. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:6246|