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Rotation, scale and translation invariant spread spectrum digital image watermarking

Published in Signal Processing. 1998, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 303-317
Abstract A digital watermark is an invisible mark embedded in a digital image which may be used for a number of different purposes including image captioning and copyright protection. This paper describes how a combination of spread spectrum encoding of the embedded message and transform-based invariants can be used for digital image watermarking. In particular, it is described how a Fourier-Mellin-based approach can be used to construct watermarks which are designed to be unaffected by any combination of rotation and scale transformations. In addition, a novel method of CDMA spread spectrum encoding is introduced which allows one to embed watermark messages of arbitrary length and which need only a secret key for decoding. The paper also describes the usefulness of Reed Solomon error-correcting codes in this scheme.
Keywords WatermarkingDigital watermarking
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Research groups Computer Vision and Multimedia Laboratory
Multimodal Interaction Group
(ISO format)
O'RUANAIDH, Joséph John, PUN, Thierry. Rotation, scale and translation invariant spread spectrum digital image watermarking. In: Signal Processing, 1998, vol. 66, n° 3, p. 303-317. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:47434

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Deposited on : 2015-03-03

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