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ITIM-dependent negative signaling pathways for the control of cell-mediated xenogeneic immune responses

del Rio, Maria-Luisa
Fernández-Renedo, Carlos
Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio
Published in Xenotransplantation. 2013, vol. 20, no. 6, p. 397-406
Abstract Xenotransplantation is an innovative field of research with the potential to provide us with an alternative source of organs to face the severe shortage of human organ donors. For several reasons, pigs have been chosen as the most suitable source of organs and tissues for transplantation in humans. However, porcine xenografts undergo cellular immune responses representing a major barrier to their acceptance and normal functioning. Innate and adaptive xenogeneic immunity is mediated by both the recognition of xenogeneic tissue antigens and the lack of inhibition due to molecular cross-species incompatibilities of regulatory pathways. Therefore, the delivery of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-dependent and related negative signals to control innate (NK cells, macrophages) and adaptive T and B cells might overcome cell-mediated xenogeneic immunity. The proof of this concept has already been achieved in vitro by the transgenic overexpression of human ligands of several inhibitory receptors in porcine cells resulting in their resistance against xenoreactivity. Consequently, several transgenic pigs expressing tissue-specific human ligands of inhibitory coreceptors (HLA-E, CD47) or soluble competitors of costimulation (belatacept) have already been generated. The development of these robust and innovative approaches to modulate human anti-pig cellular immune responses, complementary to conventional immunosuppression, will help to achieve long-term xenograft survival. In this review, we will focus on the current strategies to enhance negative signaling pathways for the regulation of undesirable cell-mediated xenoreactive immune responses.
Keywords AnimalsAntigens, HeterophileGraft Rejection/immunologyHumansImmunity, CellularImmunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Activation Motif/genetics/immunologyKiller Cells, Natural/immunologyMacrophages/immunologyModels, ImmunologicalSignal Transduction/immunologySus scrofa/genetics/immunologyTransplantation ImmunologyTransplantation, Heterologous
PMID: 23968542
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Research group Laboratoire d'immunologie translationnelle (856)
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DEL RIO, Maria-Luisa et al. ITIM-dependent negative signaling pathways for the control of cell-mediated xenogeneic immune responses. In: Xenotransplantation, 2013, vol. 20, n° 6, p. 397-406. doi: 10.1111/xen.12049 https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:43682

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Deposited on : 2014-12-17

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