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Therapy Insight: hepatopulmonary syndrome and orthotopic liver transplantation

Published inNature clinical practice gastroenterology & hepatology, vol. 4, no. 11, p. 614-621
Publication date2007
Abstract

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS)--a pulmonary complication observed in patients who have chronic liver disease and/or portal hypertension--is attributed to intrapulmonary vascular dilatation and induces severe hypoxemia. HPS is mainly detected when patients are included on the waiting list for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and can be diagnosed by blood gas analysis, transthoracic contrast-enhanced echocardiography or body scan with (99m)Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin perfusion. When the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO(2)) is >or=80 mmHg, it is unlikely that the patient has HPS. When the PaO(2) is <80 mmHg, imaging techniques should be used to confirm or exclude pulmonary vascular dilatation. When a diagnosis of HPS is confirmed, knowing the degree of hypoxemia is crucial for optimum patient management. Patients who have a PaO(2) >or=50 mmHg but <60 mmHg should be prioritized for OLT. This procedure is not indicated for patients with a PaO(2) between 60 mmHg and 80 mmHg, although follow-up every 3 months is recommended to detect any deterioration of the PaO(2). A PaO(2) of <50 mmHg might preclude OLT, because mortality and morbidity after OLT are greatly increased in these patients.

Keywords
  • Algorithms
  • Animals
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Embolization, Therapeutic
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis/epidemiology/etiology/therapy
  • Humans
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Nitric Oxide/antagonists & inhibitors
  • Oxygen Inhalation Therapy
  • Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use
  • Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
Citation (ISO format)
PASTOR, Catherine, SCHIFFER, Eduardo. Therapy Insight: hepatopulmonary syndrome and orthotopic liver transplantation. In: Nature clinical practice gastroenterology & hepatology, 2007, vol. 4, n° 11, p. 614–621. doi: 10.1038/ncpgasthep0965
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ISSN of the journal1743-4378
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