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Title

Rock uplift and exhumation of continental margins by the collision, accretion, and subduction of buoyant and topographically prominent oceanic crust

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Published in Tectonics. 2014, vol. 33
Abstract Understanding the causes of rock and surface uplift is important because they control the location of mountain building, depocenters, and drainage characteristics and can influence climate. Here we combine previous thermochronological data with field observations to determine the amount of exhumation, rock, and surface uplift that occurs in the upper plate of Central and South American subduction zones during the collision, accretion, and subduction of oceanic plateaus and aseismic ridges. The collision of buoyant and topographically prominent oceanic plateaus and ridges can drive at least 5 km of rock uplift within 2 Ma. Uplift appears to be an immediate response to collision and is generally independent of the slab dip. The amount of rock uplift is controlled mainly by excess topography associated with the ridge (ultimately linked to buoyancy) and erosion, while it is also influenced by the strength of the subduction interface related to the presence of volcanic asperities and overpressured sediments in the subduction channel. The quantity of exhumation is strongly dependant on climate-induced erosion and the lifespan over which the topography is uplifted and supported. Sediment draining into the trench may leave the elevated ridge axis sediment starved, increasing the shear stresses at the ridge subduction interface, leading to positive feedback between ridge subduction, rock uplift, and exhumation. Trench-parallel variations in exhumation have a direct impact on exploration paradigms for porphyry-related metalliferous deposits, and it is likely that porphyry systems are completely eroded by the impingement of plateaus and aseismic ridges within temperate and tropical climates.
Keywords Oceanic PlateauAseismic ridgeExhumationRock upliftSurface UpliftSubduction
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Research group Earth Surface Dynamics
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SPIKINGS, Richard Alan, SIMPSON, Guy. Rock uplift and exhumation of continental margins by the collision, accretion, and subduction of buoyant and topographically prominent oceanic crust. In: Tectonics, 2014, vol. 33. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:37190

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Deposited on : 2014-06-04

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