UNIGE document Scientific Article
previous document  unige:32431  next document
add to browser collection
Title

Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts

Authors
Zohrabyan, Sergej
Vardanyan, Arman
Melkonyan, Rafael
Published in Ore Geology Reviews. 2014, vol. 58, p. 185-207
Abstract The polymetallic Cu–Au–Ag–Zn ± Pb, Cu–Au and Cu deposits in the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana mining districts of Armenia and the Nagorno–Karabakh region form part of the Tethyan belt. They are hosted by Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus paleo-island arc, which can be divided into the Kapan Zone and the Somkheto– Karabakh Island Arc. Mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of this paleo-island arc domain formed during the first of three recognized Mesozoic to Cenozoic metallogenic epochs. The Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous metallogenic epoch comprises porphyry Cu, skarn and epithermal deposits related to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous intrusions. The second and third metallogenic epochs of the Lesser Caucasus are represented by Late Cretaceous volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits with transitional features towards epithermal mineraliza- tion and by Eocene to Miocene world-class porphyry Mo–Cu and epithermal precious metal deposits, respectively. The ore deposits in the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana mining districts are poorly understood and previous re- searchers named them as copper–pyrite, Cu–Au or polymetallic deposits. Different genetic origins were proposed for their formation, including VMS and porphyry-related scenarios. The ore deposits in the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana mining districts are characterized by diverse mineralization styles, which include polymetallic veins, massive stratiform replacement ore bodies at lithological contacts, and stockwork style mineralization. Sericitic, argillic and advanced argillic alteration assemblages are widespread in the deposits which have intermediate to high-sulfidation state mineral parageneses that consist of tennantite–tetrahedrite plus chalcopyrite and enargite–luzonite–colusite, respectively. The ore deposits are spatially associated with differentiated calc- alkaline intrusions and pebble dykes are widespread. Published δ34S values for sulfides and sulfates are in agree- ment with a magmatic source for the bulk sulfur whereas published δ34S values of sulfate minerals partly overlap with the isotopic composition of contemporaneous seawater. Published mineralization ages demonstrate discrete ore forming pulses from Middle Jurassic to the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous boundary, indicating time gaps of 5 to 20 m.y. in between the partly subaqueous deposition of the host rocks and the epigenetic mineralization. Most of the described characteristics indicate an intrusion-related origin for the ore deposits in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus, whereas a hybrid VMS–epithermal–porphyry scenario might apply for deposits with both VMS- and intrusion-related features. The volcanic Middle Jurassic host rocks for mineralization and Middle to Late Jurassic intrusive rocks from the Somkheto–Karabakh Island Arc and the Kapan Zone show typical subduction-related calc-alkaline signature. They are enriched in LILE such as K, Rb and Ba and show negative anomalies in HFSE such as Nb and Ta. The ubiquitous presence of amphibole in Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks reflects magmas with high water contents. Flat REE patterns ([La/Yb]N = 0.89–1.23) indicate a depleted mantle source, and concave-upward (listric-shaped) MREE–HREE pat- terns ([Dy/Yb]N = 0.75–1.21) suggest melting from a shallow mantle reservoir. Similar trace element patterns of Middle Jurassic rocks from the Somkheto–Karabakh Island Arc and the Kapan Zone indicate that these two tectonic units form part of one discontinuous segmented arc. Similar petrogenetic and ore-forming processes operated along its axis and Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanosedimentary rocks constitute the preferential host for polymetallic Cu–Au–Ag–Zn ± Pb, Cu–Au and Cu mineralization, both in the Somkheto–Karabakh Island Arc and the Kapan Zone.
Keywords Tethyan beltLesser CaucasusArmeniaNagorno–KarabakhVMS–epithermal–porphyry transition
Identifiers
Full text
Structures
Research group Mineral Resources and Geofluids
Citation
(ISO format)
MEDERER, Johannes et al. Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts. In: Ore Geology Reviews, 2014, vol. 58, p. 185-207. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:32431

324 hits

0 download

Update

Deposited on : 2013-12-18

Export document
Format :
Citation style :