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Scientific article
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Synthesis of 3,3-Disubstituted Oxindoles by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Intramolecular α-Arylation of Amides: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Studies

Published inChemistry, vol. 19, no. 36, p. 11916-11927
Publication date2013
Abstract

Palladium complexes incorporating chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands catalyze the asymmetric intramolecular α-arylation of amides producing 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles. Comprehensive DFT studies have been performed to gain insight into the mechanism of this transformation. Oxidative addition is shown to be rate-determining and reductive elimination to be enantioselectivity-determining. The synthesis of seven new NHC ligands is detailed and their performance is compared. One of them, L8, containing a tBu and a 1-naphthyl group at the stereogenic centre, proved superior and was very efficient in the asymmetric synthesis of fifteen new spiro-oxindoles and three azaspiro-oxindoles often in high yields (up to 99 %) and enantioselectivities (up to 97 % ee; ee=enantiomeric excess). Three palladacycle intermediates resulting from the oxidative addition of [Pd(NHC)] into the aryl halide bond were isolated and structurally characterized (X-ray). Using these intermediates as catalysts showed alkene additives to play an important role in increasing turnover number and frequency.

Keywords
  • Arylation
  • Asymmetric catalysis
  • N-heterocyclic carbenes
  • Oxindoles
  • Palladium
Citation (ISO format)
KATAYEV, Dmitry et al. Synthesis of 3,3-Disubstituted Oxindoles by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Intramolecular α-Arylation of Amides: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Studies. In: Chemistry, 2013, vol. 19, n° 36, p. 11916–11927. doi: 10.1002/chem.201301572
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ISSN of the journal0947-6539
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