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Fine-Needle Aspiration of Primary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid Gland, a Potential Mimic of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

Published inActa cytologica, vol. 57, no. 4, p. 406-412
Publication date2013
Abstract

Background: The clinical presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) as a primary solitary nodule in the thyroid gland is rare. As a result, there are few reports of its cytologic features in thyroid aspirates where it can pose a diagnostic pitfall. Case and Conclusion: To foster familiarity with its cytomorphology, we report the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings of 3 specimens from 2 patients with LCH presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule. All aspirates contained numerous dispersed cells with prominent nuclear grooves, and the background showed a mixed pattern of chronic inflammation including scattered eosinophils. The aspirate from patient 1 raised a differential diagnosis that included chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and a thyroglossal duct cyst, while the aspirate from patient 2 was interpreted as 'suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma'. The diagnosis of LCH was confirmed in both patients after lobectomy and immunohistochemical studies that revealed positive reactivity for CD1a and S-100. LCH of the thyroid gland is rare and can pose significant diagnostic challenges, but increased familiarity with its characteristic cytomorphology can help in avoiding diagnostic pitfalls.

Citation (ISO format)
PUSZTASZERI, Marc et al. Fine-Needle Aspiration of Primary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid Gland, a Potential Mimic of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma. In: Acta cytologica, 2013, vol. 57, n° 4, p. 406–412. doi: 10.1159/000348801
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Creation08/13/2013 4:16:00 PM
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