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Title

Investigating the in vitro metabolism of fipexide: characterization of reactive metabolites using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

Authors
Sleno, Lekha
Staack, Roland F.
Published in Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2007, vol. 21, no. 14, p. 2301-2311
Abstract The in vitro metabolism of the nootropic drug fipexide was studied using different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) techniques. This drug has been withdrawn from the market due to toxic effects. No previous reports have investigated the possible involvement of reactive metabolites in the toxicity of fipexide. The hydrolysis of this drug leads to the formation of two potentially toxic species, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine (MDBP) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA). Here, we investigate the in vitro metabolism of fipexide in human, rat, mouse and dog, as well as of MDBP and 4-CPA in human and rat, while focusing on the formation of reactive metabolites. A combination of LC/MS analyses on a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap instrument and accurate mass data from QqTOF measurements was employed for the characterization of these metabolites. Microsomal metabolites of fipexide were MDBP, 4-CPA, fipexide N-oxide or hydroxyl, demethylenated fipexide and other minor ones, all of which were investigated by tandem mass spectrometry. Reactive metabolites were detected using several trapping procedures with small molecules such as glutathione, its ethyl ester derivative and N-acetylcysteine. The demethylenated metabolite, a catechol, formed its corresponding ortho-quinone, which readily reacts with these nucleophiles. MDBP was studied in a similar manner, due to its ability to form an analogous catechol. Because of its acidic nature, 4-CPA was assessed for possible acylglucuronide and acyl-CoA thioester metabolites, which could also be involved in bioactivation pathways. Several important metabolites were identified as potential mediators of toxicity via protein binding.
Keywords AnimalsChromatography, Liquid/methodsDogsHumansMetabolic Clearance RateMiceMicrosomes, Liver/metabolismPiperazines/chemistry/pharmacokineticsRatsReproducibility of ResultsSensitivity and SpecificitySpectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization/methods
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PMID: 17577876
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SLENO, Lekha et al. Investigating the in vitro metabolism of fipexide: characterization of reactive metabolites using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 2007, vol. 21, n° 14, p. 2301-2311. https://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:2409

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Deposited on : 2009-08-11

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