Scientific article
Open access

Transdermal delivery of cytochrome C--A 12.4 kDa protein--across intact skin by constant-current iontophoresis

Published inPharmaceutical research, vol. 24, no. 7, p. 1360-1368
  • Open Access - Licence nationale Springer
Publication date2007

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of a small (12.4 kDa) protein across intact skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The iontophoretic transport of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) across porcine ear skin in vitro was investigated and quantified by HPLC. The effect of protein concentration (0.35 and 0.7 mM), current density (0.15, 0.3 or 0.5 mA.cm(-2) applied for 8 h) and competing ions was evaluated. Co-iontophoresis of acetaminophen was employed to quantify the respective contributions of electromigration (EM) and electroosmosis (EO). RESULTS: The data confirmed the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of intact Cyt c. Electromigration was the principal transport mechanism, accounting for approximately 90% of delivery; correlation between EM flux and electrophoretic mobility was consistent with earlier results using small molecules. Modest EO inhibition was observed at 0.5 mA.cm(-2). Cumulative permeation at 0.3 and 0.5 mA.cm(-2) was significantly greater than that at 0.15 mA.cm(-2); fluxes using 0.35 and 0.7 mM Cyt c in the absence of competing ions (J ( tot ) = 182.8 +/- 56.8 and 265.2 +/- 149.1 microg.cm(-2).h(-1), respectively) were statistically equivalent. Formulation in PBS (pH 8.2) confirmed the impact of competing charge carriers; inclusion of approximately 170 mM Na(+) resulted in a 3.9-fold decrease in total flux. CONCLUSIONS: Significant amounts ( approximately 0.9 mg.cm(-2) over 8 h) of Cyt c were delivered non-invasively across intact skin by transdermal electrotransport.

  • Acetaminophen/administration & dosage/metabolism
  • Administration
  • Cutaneous
  • Animals
  • Chromatography
  • High Pressure Liquid
  • Cytochromes c/administration & dosage/chemistry/metabolism
  • Diffusion Chambers
  • Culture
  • Drug Delivery Systems/methods
  • Electroosmosis
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Iontophoresis
  • Models
  • Molecular
  • Molecular Weight
  • Permeability
  • Protein Conformation
  • Skin/metabolism
  • Skin Absorption
  • Swine
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Culture Techniques
Citation (ISO format)
CAZARES DELGADILLO, Jennyfer et al. Transdermal delivery of cytochrome C--A 12.4 kDa protein--across intact skin by constant-current iontophoresis. In: Pharmaceutical research, 2007, vol. 24, n° 7, p. 1360–1368. doi: 10.1007/s11095-007-9294-4
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal0724-8741

Technical informations

Creation08/28/2012 3:22:00 PM
First validation08/28/2012 3:22:00 PM
Update time03/14/2023 5:39:44 PM
Status update03/14/2023 5:39:44 PM
Last indexation10/18/2023 2:32:34 PM
All rights reserved by Archive ouverte UNIGE and the University of GenevaunigeBlack