Scientific article

Recent advances in dental zirconia : 15 years of material and processing evolution

Published inDental materials, vol. 40, no. 5, p. 824-836
Publication date2024-05
First online date2024-03-23

Objectives: The objective was to discuss the research on zirconia published in the past 15 years to help the dental materials community understand the key properties of the types of zirconia and their clinical applications.

Methods: A literature search was performed in May/2023 using Web of Science Core Collection with the term “dental zirconia”. The search returned 5102 articles, which were categorized into 31 groups according to the research topic.

Results: The current approach to improving the translucency of zirconia is to decrease the alumina content while increasing the yttria content. The resulting materials (4Y-, 5Y-, and above 5 mol% PSZs) may contain more than 50% of cubic phase, with a decrease in mechanical properties. The market trend for zirconia is the production of CAD/CAM disks containing more fracture resistant 3Y-TZP at the bottom layers and more translucent 5Y-PSZ at the top. Although flaws located between layers in multilayered blocks might represent a problem, newer generations of zirconia layered blocks appear to have solved this problem with novel powder compaction technology. Significant advancements in zirconia processing technologies have been made, but there is still plenty of room for improvement, especially in the fields of high-speed sintering and additive manufacturing.

Significance: The wide range of zirconia materials currently available in the market may cause confusion in materials selection. It is therefore imperative for dental clinicians and laboratory technicians to get the needed knowledge on zirconia material science, to follow manufacturers’ instructions, and to optimize the design of the prosthetic restoration with a good understanding where to reinforce the structure with a tough and strong zirconia.

  • Composition-gradient materials
  • Consolidation methods
  • Dental zirconia
  • Microstructure
  • Monolith
  • Powder technology
  • Review
  • Sintering
  • Techniques
  • Translucency
Citation (ISO format)
CESAR, Paulo Francisco et al. Recent advances in dental zirconia : 15 years of material and processing evolution. In: Dental materials, 2024, vol. 40, n° 5, p. 824–836. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2024.02.026
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Article (Published version)
accessLevelRestrictedaccessLevelPublic 05/01/2025
ISSN of the journal0109-5641

Technical informations

Creation06/12/2024 2:28:39 PM
First validation06/17/2024 9:05:19 AM
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