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Fluorescent Membrane Probes Obey the Israelachvili Rules

Published inHelvetica chimica acta, e202400062
Publication date2024-05-09
First online date2024-05-09
Abstract

When developing fluorescent membrane probes, we naturally tend to focus on the fluorophore itself. In this study, we show that sometimes it can be beneficial to shift attention from the center to the periphery, to maximize multiple interfacing with complex changing environments. Palmitylation for hydrophobic interfacing and glutamate dendrons for hydrophilic interfacing are combined to improve the performance of fluorescent flipper probes. We show that to increase performance in membranes, solubility in water is important, and to increase solubility in water, we increase the hydrophobicity of the flipper probe. These seemingly paradoxical measures are taken to satisfy the Israelachvili rules. They state that only inverted cone amphiphiles form soluble micelles in water, while inverted micelles from cone shaped amphiphiles precipitate into hexagonal 1 supramolecular polymers, and the intermediate cylindrical amphiphiles show intermediate behavior dominated by bilayers and lamellar precipitates. The normal micelles obtained from inverted cone flipper amphiphiles prevent precipitation and prepare for efficient transfer into the lipid bilayer membranes. The results are flippers that break all records set by the 2016 original with regard to effective brightness, responsiveness to membrane order, anchoring in disordered membranes, partitioning into membranes of high order, and stable labeling of membranes of interest.

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Citation (ISO format)
BAYARD, Félix, MATILE, Stefan. Fluorescent Membrane Probes Obey the Israelachvili Rules. In: Helvetica chimica acta, 2024, p. e202400062. doi: 10.1002/hlca.202400062
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ISSN of the journal0018-019X
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