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Scientific article
Open access
English

Microbial diagnostics in periodontal diseases

Published inPeriodontology 2000
First online date2024-05-27
Abstract

Microbial analytical methods have been instrumental in elucidating the complex microbial etiology of periodontal diseases, by shaping our understanding of subgingival community dynamics. Certain pathobionts can orchestrate the establishment of dysbiotic communities that can subvert the host immune system, triggering inflammation and tissue destruction. Yet, diagnosis and management of periodontal conditions still rely on clinical and radiographic examinations, overlooking the well-established

microbial etiology. This review summarizes the chronological emergence of periodontal etiological models and the co-evolution

with technological advances in microbial detection. We additionally review the microbial analytical approaches currently accessible to clinicians, highlighting their value in broadening the periodontal assessment. The epidemiological importance of obtaining culture-based antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of periodontal taxa for antibiotic resistance surveillance is also underscored, together with clinically relevant analytical approaches to guide antibiotherapy choices, when necessary. Furthermore, the importance of 16S-based community and shotgun metagenomic profiling is discussed in outlining dysbiotic microbial signatures. Because dysbiosis precedes periodontal damage, biomarker identification offers early diagnostic possibilities to forestall disease relapses during maintenance. Altogether, this review highlights the underutilized potential of clinical microbiology in periodontology, spotlighting the clinical areas most conductive to its diagnostic implementation for enhancing prevention, treatment predictability, and addressing global antibiotic resistance.

eng
Keywords
  • Clinical microbiology
  • Diagnostics
  • Dysbiosis
  • Metaproteomics
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • Oral microbial communities
  • Oral microbiology
Citation (ISO format)
MANOIL, Daniel et al. Microbial diagnostics in periodontal diseases. In: Periodontology 2000, 2024. doi: 10.1111/prd.12571
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Article (Published version)
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ISSN of the journal0906-6713
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