Scientific article
Open access

EANM practice guidelines for an appropriate use of PET and SPECT for patients with epilepsy

Publication date2024-02-23
First online date2024-02-23

Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological conditions with an estimated prevalence of more than 50 million people worldwide and an annual incidence of two million. Although pharmacotherapy with anti-seizure medication (ASM) is the treatment of choice, ~30% of patients with epilepsy do not respond to ASM and become drug resistant. Focal epilepsy is the most frequent form of epilepsy. In patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy, epilepsy surgery is a treatment option depending on the localisation of the seizure focus for seizure relief or seizure freedom with consecutive improvement in quality of life. Beside examinations such as scalp video/electroencephalography (EEG) telemetry, structural, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are primary standard tools for the diagnostic work-up and therapy management of epilepsy patients, molecular neuroimaging using different radiopharmaceuticals with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) influences and impacts on therapy decisions. To date, there are no literature-based praxis recommendations for the use of Nuclear Medicine (NM) imaging procedures in epilepsy. The aims of these guidelines are to assist in understanding the role and challenges of radiotracer imaging for epilepsy; to provide practical information for performing different molecular imaging procedures for epilepsy; and to provide an algorithm for selecting the most appropriate imaging procedures in specific clinical situations based on current literature. These guidelines are written and authorized by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) to promote optimal epilepsy imaging, especially in the presurgical setting in children, adolescents, and adults with focal epilepsy. They will assist NM healthcare professionals and also specialists such as Neurologists, Neurophysiologists, Neurosurgeons, Psychiatrists, Psychologists, and others involved in epilepsy management in the detection and interpretation of epileptic seizure onset zone (SOZ) for further treatment decision. The information provided should be applied according to local laws and regulations as well as the availability of various radiopharmaceuticals and imaging modalities.

  • Drug-resistant epilepsy
  • Extratemporal epilepsy
  • Focal epilepsy
  • Ictal SPECT
  • Imaging
  • Interictal SPECT
  • MRI
  • Neurotransmitter PET
  • Paediatric epileptic syndromes
  • Presurgical evaluation
  • Surgery
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy
  • [18F]FDG PET
Citation (ISO format)
TRAUB-WEIDINGER, Tatjana et al. EANM practice guidelines for an appropriate use of PET and SPECT for patients with epilepsy. In: European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, 2024. doi: 10.1007/s00259-024-06656-3
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1619-7070

Technical informations

Creation03/22/2024 3:03:39 PM
First validation05/24/2024 1:14:12 PM
Update time05/24/2024 1:14:12 PM
Status update05/24/2024 1:14:12 PM
Last indexation05/24/2024 1:14:32 PM
All rights reserved by Archive ouverte UNIGE and the University of GenevaunigeBlack