Scientific article
Open access

The paradigm change from reactive medical services to 3PM in ischemic stroke : a holistic approach utilising tear fluid multi-omics, mitochondria as a vital biosensor and AI-based multi-professional data interpretation

Published inThe EPMA journal, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 1-23
Publication date2024-02-27
First online date2024-02-27

Worldwide stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of death and disability combined. The estimated global economic burden by stroke is over US$891 billion per year. Within three decades (1990–2019), the incidence increased by 70%, deaths by 43%, prevalence by 102%, and DALYs by 143%. Of over 100 million people affected by stroke, about 76% are ischemic stroke (IS) patients recorded worldwide. Contextually, ischemic stroke moves into particular focus of multi-professional groups including researchers, healthcare industry, economists, and policy-makers. Risk factors of ischemic stroke demonstrate sufficient space for cost-effective prevention interventions in primary (suboptimal health) and secondary (clinically manifested collateral disorders contributing to stroke risks) care. These risks are interrelated. For example, sedentary lifestyle and toxic environment both cause mitochondrial stress, systemic low-grade inflammation and accelerated ageing; inflammageing is a low-grade inflammation associated with accelerated ageing and poor stroke outcomes. Stress overload, decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics and hypomagnesaemia are associated with systemic vasospasm and ischemic lesions in heart and brain of all age groups including teenagers. Imbalanced dietary patterns poor in folate but rich in red and processed meat, refined grains, and sugary beverages are associated with hyperhomocysteinaemia, systemic inflammation, small vessel disease, and increased IS risks. Ongoing 3PM research towards vulnerable groups in the population promoted by the European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) demonstrates promising results for the holistic patient-friendly non-invasive approach utilising tear fluid-based health risk assessment, mitochondria as a vital biosensor and AI-based multi-professional data interpretation as reported here by the EPMA expert group. Collected data demonstrate that IS-relevant risks and corresponding molecular pathways are interrelated. For examples, there is an evident overlap between molecular patterns involved in IS and diabetic retinopathy as an early indicator of IS risk in diabetic patients. Just to exemplify some of them such as the 5-aminolevulinic acid/pathway, which are also characteristic for an altered mitophagy patterns, insomnia, stress regulation and modulation of microbiota-gut-brain crosstalk. Further, ceramides are considered mediators of oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiometabolic disease, negatively affecting mitochondrial respiratory chain function and fission/fusion activity, altered sleep–wake behaviour, vascular stiffness and remodelling. Xanthine/pathway regulation is involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and stress-driven anxiety-like behaviour as well as molecular mechanisms of arterial stiffness. In order to assess individual health risks, an application of machine learning (AI tool) is essential for an accurate data interpretation performed by the multiparametric analysis. Aspects presented in the paper include the needs of young populations and elderly, personalised risk assessment in primary and secondary care, cost-efficacy, application of innovative technologies and screening programmes, advanced education measures for professionals and general population—all are essential pillars for the paradigm change from reactive medical services to 3PM in the overall IS management promoted by the EPMA.

  • Artificial intelligence
  • Behavioural patterns
  • Cytokine storm (COVID-19)
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Expert recommendations
  • Flammer syndrome
  • Health policy
  • Health risk assessment
  • Health-to-disease transition
  • Healthcare economy
  • Individualised patient profile
  • Inflammation
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Mitochondrial health
  • Mitophagy
  • Patient-friendly non-invasive approach
  • Population screening
  • Predictive preventive personalised medicine (PPPM / 3PM)
  • Primary and secondary care
  • Sleep medicine
  • Suboptimal health
  • Sudden cardiac arrest/death
  • Tear fluid analysis
  • Viromics and metabolomics
Citation (ISO format)
GOLUBNITSCHAJA, Olga et al. The paradigm change from reactive medical services to 3PM in ischemic stroke : a holistic approach utilising tear fluid multi-omics, mitochondria as a vital biosensor and AI-based multi-professional data interpretation. In: The EPMA journal, 2024, vol. 15, n° 1, p. 1–23. doi: 10.1007/s13167-024-00356-6
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1878-5077

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