Scientific article
Open access

Multiligament knee injuries treated by one-stage reconstruction using allograft : Postoperative laxity assessment using stress radiography and clinical outcomes

Published inOrthopaedics & traumatology: surgery & research, vol. 106, no. 5, p. 937-944
Publication date2020-09
First online date2019-09-04

Background: Surgical treatment of multiligament knee injuries (MLKIs) leads to better outcomes but there are controversies about optimal surgical strategies. Debates remain about timing of surgery: acute, staged or delayed and about graft choice: autograft, allograft or a combination of both. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study aiming to evaluate postoperative laxity using stress radiographs and clinical outcomes after one-stage reconstructions of injured ligaments using non-irradiated, fresh-frozen allografts.

Hypothesis: MLKIs treated by one-stage reconstructions using non-irradiated, fresh-frozen allograft may lead to satisfactorily postoperative laxity and clinical outcomes.

Methods: Between November 2013 and July 2015, 23 patients with MLKIs underwent one-stage reconstruction using allograft. Knee injuries were defined according Schenk classification of Knee Dislocation (KD). Patients were evaluated using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form at a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Postoperative anterior, posterior, varus, and valgus laxities were assessed using stress radiographs and expressed as side-to-side differences (SSD) in millimeters.

Results: Three of 23 patients were lost to follow-up. There were 6 KD-I, 12 KD-III, and 2 KD-IV lesions, 12 lateral-side and 10 medial-side lesions, and 13 acute and 7 chronic cases. Three patients had associated neurovascular injuries. Mean follow-up was at 29.4±6.1 months. Mean valgus SSD was 0.2mm±1.4mm (range, -2.1-2.2mm), mean varus SSD was 1.4mm±2.5mm (range, -1.7-6.0mm), mean posterior SSD was 7.2mm±3.9mm (range, 1.2-16.0mm), mean anterior SSD was 3.6mm±5.1mm (range, -4.8-16.8mm). Overall IKDC ratings were: 4 grade A, 3B, 7C, and 6D. Three patients complained of postoperative instability, with an IKDC rating of D. The mean subjective IKDC score was 67.2±19.6, the mean Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale was 77.3±16.5, and the mean KOOS results were 78.5±16.6 for pain, 67.7±17.4 for symptoms, 86.5±14.2 for daily activities, 56±25.4 for sports, and 47.2±28.6 for quality of life. Nineteen of 20 patients returned to sport-6 to the same level. One patient underwent an arthroscopic arthrolysis due to postoperative arthrofibrosis.

Conclusions: Using non-irradiated allografts for one-stage reconstructions of all the injured ligaments in MLKIs is effective and safe. Anteroposterior stability was difficult to restore, but patients returned to their daily activities and sometimes to their sports activity at the same preinjury level.

Level of evidence: Level IV, case series.

  • Allograft
  • Knee dislocation
  • Multiligament knee injury
  • One-stage reconstruction
  • Stress radiography
  • Allografts
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / diagnostic imaging
  • Joint Instability / surgery
  • Knee Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Knee Injuries / surgery
  • Knee Joint
  • Quality of Life
  • Radiography
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
Citation (ISO format)
BILLIERES, Julien et al. Multiligament knee injuries treated by one-stage reconstruction using allograft : Postoperative laxity assessment using stress radiography and clinical outcomes. In: Orthopaedics & traumatology: surgery & research, 2020, vol. 106, n° 5, p. 937–944. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2019.08.001
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Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1877-0568

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