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Scientific article
English

Cdc42 mobility and membrane flows regulate fission yeast cell shape and survival

Published inbioRxiv
First online date2023-07-21
Abstract

Local Cdc42 GTPase activation promotes polarized exocytosis, resulting in membrane flows that deplete low-mobility membrane-associated proteins from the growth region. To investigate the self-organizing properties of the Cdc42 secretion-polarization system under membrane flow, we developed a reaction-diffusion particle model. The model includes positive feedback activation of Cdc42, hydrolysis by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and flow-induced displacement by exo/endocytosis. Simulations show how polarization relies on flow-induced depletion of low mobility GAPs. To probe the role of Cdc42 mobility in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe , we changed its membrane binding properties by replacing its prenylation site with 1, 2 or 3 repeats of the Rit1 C terminal membrane binding domain (ritC), yielding alleles with progressively lower unbinding and diffusion rates. Concordant modelling predictions and experimental observations show that lower Cdc42 mobility results in lower Cdc42 activation level and wider patches. Indeed, while Cdc42-1ritC cells are viable and polarized, Cdc42-2ritC polarize poorly and Cdc42-3ritC is inviable. The model further predicts that GAP depletion increases Cdc42 activity at the expense of loss of polarization. Experiments confirm this prediction, as deletion of Cdc42 GAPs restores viability to Cdc42-3ritC cells. Our combined experimental and modelling studies demonstrate how membrane flows are an integral part of Cdc42-driven pattern formation.

Significance Statement

The delivery of new membrane from internal pools at zones of polarized secretion induces in-plane plasma membrane flows that displace slowly mobile membrane-associated proteins from the zone of secretion. However, zones of polarized secretion are themselves specified by the activity of membrane-associated polarity factors, such as the small GTPase Cdc42. Through combined modelling and experimental approaches, this work demonstrates that the fast mobility of the Cdc42 GTPase is critical to allow the establishment and maintenance of a polarity patch, which is reinforced by flow-mediated displacement of a negative regulator.

eng
Keywords
  • Cdc42 GTPase
  • Cell polarization
  • Membrane flows
  • Reaction-diffusion systems
  • Symmetry breaking
Citation (ISO format)
RUTKOWSKI, David M. et al. Cdc42 mobility and membrane flows regulate fission yeast cell shape and survival. In: bioRxiv, 2023. doi: 10.1101/2023.07.21.550042
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Article (Submitted version)
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ISSN of the journal2692-8205
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