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Scientific article
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Bronchial aspirate obtained during bronchoscopy yields increased fungal load compared to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia

Published inMedical mycology, vol. 61, no. 12, myad120
Publication date2023-12-01
First online date2023-11-23
Abstract

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a standard respiratory sample for diagnosing invasive fungal diseases like Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, procedural variations exist across medical centers and wards. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic potential of BALF and bronchial aspirate (BA) obtained during bronchoscopy in 173 patients suspected of fungal infections. A prospective observational study was conducted from April 2020 to November 2021. BALF and BA were collected during bronchoscopy and subjected to direct examination, fungal culture, Aspergillus fumigatus qPCR (AfqPCR), and Pneumocystis jirovecii qPCR (PjqPCR). Galactomannan detection was performed on BALF. Patients were classified based on established European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Out of 173 patients, 75 tested positive for at least one test in BA or BALF. For Aspergillus, proportion of positive AfqPCR (14.5% vs. 9.2%; P < 0.0001) and fungal loads (Cq of 31.3 vs. 32.8; P = 0.0018) were significantly higher in BA compared to BALF. For Pneumocystis, fungal loads by PjqPCR was also higher in BA compared to BALF (Cq of 34.2 vs. 35.7; P = 0.003). BA only detected A. fumigatus and P. jirovecii in 12 (42.9%) and 8 (19.5%) patients, respectively. BA obtained during a BAL procedure can be a suitable sample type for increased detection of P. jirovecii and A. fumigatus by qPCR. The use of BA in diagnostic algorithms requires further investigation in prospective studies.

eng
Keywords
  • Humans
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / microbiology
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / diagnosis
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / microbiology
  • Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / veterinary
  • Bronchoscopy / veterinary
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Aspergillosis / veterinary
  • Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis / diagnosis
  • Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis / veterinary
  • Pneumocystis carinii / genetics
  • Mannans / analysis
Citation (ISO format)
DELLIÈRE, Sarah et al. Bronchial aspirate obtained during bronchoscopy yields increased fungal load compared to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients at risk of invasive aspergillosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia. In: Medical mycology, 2023, vol. 61, n° 12, p. myad120. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myad120
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Article (Published version)
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ISSN of the journal1369-3786
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