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Scientific article
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Spontaneous nosocomial Proteus mirabilis meningitis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected adult patient : a case report

Published inJournal of medical case reports, vol. 17, no. 1, 52
Publication date2023-02-09
First online date2023-02-09
Abstract

Background: Gram-negative bacillary meningitis remains a rare occurrence, even in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Current literature only describes anecdotal cases of spontaneous nosocomial Proteus mirabilis meningitis. This report describes the clinical manifestations and management of a patient with healthcare-associated spontaneous Gram-negative bacillary meningitis in a patient with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease.

Case presentation: A 23-year-old Congolese female was hospitalized in a human immunodeficiency virus specialized center for ongoing weight loss, chronic abdominal pain, and vomiting 9 months after initiation of treatment for tuberculosis meningitis. Hospitalization was complicated by healthcare-associated Gram-negative bacillary meningitis on day 18. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures confirmed Proteus mirabilis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed extended spectrum beta-lactamase resistant to common antibiotics, and sensitive to meropenem. Despite initiation of high-dose meropenem by intravenous infusion (2 g every 8 hours), the patient did not improve, and died after 4 days of meropenem treatment. Gram-negative bacillary meningitis remains rare and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis.

Conclusions: This case report highlights the importance of microbiological identification of pathogens in resource-limited settings. As Gram-negative bacillary meningitis does not present with pleocytosis in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus, a negative lumbar puncture cannot exclude this diagnosis. Access to clinical bacteriology in resource-limited settings is essential to enable correct antibiotic treatment and avoid overuse of antibiotics to which there is already resistance. It further plays an essential role in public health by identifying antibiotic susceptibilities. Infection prevention and control measures must be reinforced in order to protect patients from such avoidable healthcare-associated infections.

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Keywords
  • Advanced HIV
  • Gram-negative bacillary meningitis
  • Healthcare-associated meningitis
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Humans
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Young Adult
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • HIV
  • Meropenem / therapeutic use
  • Meningitis, Bacterial / complications
  • Meningitis, Bacterial / diagnosis
  • Meningitis, Bacterial / drug therapy
  • Meningitis / complications
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
Citation (ISO format)
SOOD, Radhika et al. Spontaneous nosocomial Proteus mirabilis meningitis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected adult patient : a case report. In: Journal of medical case reports, 2023, vol. 17, n° 1, p. 52. doi: 10.1186/s13256-022-03704-0
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Article (Published version)
Identifiers
ISSN of the journal1752-1947
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