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Scientific article
Open access
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Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Patients With and Without Preoperative Colonization

Published inJAMA network open, vol. 6, no. 10, e2339793
Publication date2023-10-02
First online date2023-10-02
Abstract

Importance: Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections (SSIs) and bloodstream infections (BSIs) are important complications of surgical procedures for which prevention remains suboptimal. Contemporary data on the incidence of and etiologic factors for these infections are needed to support the development of improved preventive strategies.

Objectives: To assess the occurrence of postoperative S aureus SSIs and BSIs and quantify its association with patient-related and contextual factors.

Design, setting, and participants: This multicenter cohort study assessed surgical patients at 33 hospitals in 10 European countries who were recruited between December 16, 2016, and September 30, 2019 (follow-up through December 30, 2019). Enrolled patients were actively followed up for up to 90 days after surgery to assess the occurrence of S aureus SSIs and BSIs. Data analysis was performed between November 20, 2020, and April 21, 2022. All patients were 18 years or older and had undergone 11 different types of surgical procedures. They were screened for S aureus colonization in the nose, throat, and perineum within 30 days before surgery (source population). Both S aureus carriers and noncarriers were subsequently enrolled in a 2:1 ratio.

Exposure: Preoperative S aureus colonization.

Main outcomes and measures: The main outcome was cumulative incidence of S aureus SSIs and BSIs estimated for the source population, using weighted incidence calculation. The independent association of candidate variables was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: In total, 5004 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-72] years; 2510 [50.2%] female) were enrolled in the study cohort; 3369 (67.3%) were S aureus carriers. One hundred patients developed S aureus SSIs or BSIs within 90 days after surgery. The weighted cumulative incidence of S aureus SSIs or BSIs was 2.55% (95% CI, 2.05%-3.12%) for carriers and 0.52% (95% CI, 0.22%-0.91%) for noncarriers. Preoperative S aureus colonization (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 4.38; 95% CI, 2.19-8.76), having nonremovable implants (AHR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.15-3.49), undergoing mastectomy (AHR, 5.13; 95% CI, 1.87-14.08) or neurosurgery (AHR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.09-5.61) (compared with orthopedic surgery), and body mass index (AHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08 per unit increase) were independently associated with S aureus SSIs and BSIs.

Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study of surgical patients, S aureus carriage was associated with an increased risk of developing S aureus SSIs and BSIs. Both modifiable and nonmodifiable etiologic factors were associated with this risk and should be addressed in those at increased S aureus SSI and BSI risk.

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Keywords
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Male
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Cohort Studies
  • Breast Neoplasms / complications
  • Mastectomy
  • Staphylococcal Infections / prevention & control
  • Surgical Wound Infection / prevention & control
Funding
  • European Commission - Combatting Bacterial Resistance in Europe [115523]
Citation (ISO format)
TROEMAN, Darren P R et al. Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Patients With and Without Preoperative Colonization. In: JAMA network open, 2023, vol. 6, n° 10, p. e2339793. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.39793
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Identifiers
ISSN of the journal2574-3805
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Creation12/05/2023 12:35:08 PM
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