Scientific article
Open access

Inactivation of Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus in Clams Subjected to Heat Treatment

Published inFrontiers in microbiology, vol. 11, 578328
Publication date2020
First online date2021-01-12

Bivalve mollusk contamination by enteric viruses, especially human noroviruses (HuNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), is a problem with health and economic implications. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the effect of heat treatment in clams (Tawera gayi) experimentally contaminated with HuNoV using a PMA-viability RTqPCR assay to minimize measurement of non-infectious viruses, and used HAV as a model to estimate infectivity loss. Spiked clams were immersed in water at 90°C to ensure that internal meat temperature was maintained above 90°C for at least 5 min. The treatment resulted in >3.89 ± 0.24 log10TCID50/g reduction of infectious HAV, confirming inactivation. For HuNoV, RTqPCR assays showed log10reductions of 2.96 ± 0.79 and 2.56 ± 0.56, for GI and GII, respectively, and the use of PMA resulted in an additional log10reduction for GII, providing a better correlation with risk reduction. In the absence of a cell culture system which could be used to determine HuNoV infectivity reduction, a performance criteria based on PMA-RTqPCR log reduction could be used to evaluate food product safety. According to data from this study, heat treatments of clams which cause reductions >3.5 log10for GII as measured by PMA-RTqPCR assay may be regarded as an acceptable inactivation treatment, and could be set as a performance criterion to test the effectiveness of other time-temperature inactivation processes.

  • PMA-viability RTqPCR
  • Clams
  • Heat inactivation
  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Human norovirus
  • Infectivity
Affiliation Not a UNIGE publication
Citation (ISO format)
FUENTES, Cristina et al. Inactivation of Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus in Clams Subjected to Heat Treatment. In: Frontiers in microbiology, 2020, vol. 11, p. 578328. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.578328
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Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1664-302X

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