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Scientific article
Open access
English

Hospital Outcomes of Community-Acquired SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Infection Compared With Influenza Infection in Switzerland

Published inJAMA network open, vol. 6, no. 2, e2255599
Publication date2023-02-15
First online date2023-02-15
Abstract

Importance

With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to assess the current burden of disease of community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in hospitalized patients to tailor appropriate public health policies. Comparisons with better-known seasonal influenza infections may facilitate such decisions.

Objective

To compare the in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant with patients with influenza.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This cohort study was based on a national COVID-19 and influenza registry. Hospitalized patients aged 18 years and older with community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection who were admitted between January 15 and March 15, 2022 (when B.1.1.529 Omicron predominance was >95%), and hospitalized patients with influenza A or B infection from January 1, 2018, to March 15, 2022, where included. Patients without a study outcome by August 30, 2022, were censored. The study was conducted at 15 hospitals in Switzerland.

Exposures

Community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant vs community-acquired seasonal influenza A or B.

Main Outcomes and Measures

Primary and secondary outcomes were defined as in-hospital mortality and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant or influenza. Cox regression (cause-specific and Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard models) was used to account for time-dependency and competing events, with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounders with right-censoring at day 30.

Results

Of 5212 patients included from 15 hospitals, 3066 (58.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection in 14 centers and 2146 patients (41.2%) had influenza A or B in 14 centers. Of patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, 1485 (48.4%) were female, while 1113 patients with influenza (51.9%) were female ( P  = .02). Patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant were younger (median [IQR] age, 71 [53-82] years) than those with influenza (median [IQR] age, 74 [59-83] years; P  < .001). Overall, 214 patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (7.0%) died during hospitalization vs 95 patients with influenza (4.4%; P  < .001). The final adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (sdHR) for in-hospital death for SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant vs influenza was 1.54 (95% CI, 1.18-2.01; P  = .002). Overall, 250 patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (8.6%) vs 169 patients with influenza (8.3%) were admitted to the ICU ( P  = .79). After adjustment, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was not significantly associated with increased ICU admission vs influenza (sdHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.88-1.32; P  = .50).

Conclusions and Relevance

The data from this prospective, multicenter cohort study suggest a significantly increased risk of in-hospital mortality for patients with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant vs those with influenza, while ICU admission rates were similar.

eng
Citation (ISO format)
PORTMANN, Lea et al. Hospital Outcomes of Community-Acquired SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Infection Compared With Influenza Infection in Switzerland. In: JAMA network open, 2023, vol. 6, n° 2, p. e2255599. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.55599
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ISSN of the journal2574-3805
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Technical informations

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