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Scientific article
Open access
English

Discovery and characterization of heterogeneous and multipotent fibroblast populations isolated from excised cleft lip tissue

Published inStem cell research & therapy, vol. 13, no. 1, 469
Publication date2022-09-08
First online date2022-09-08
Abstract

Background: Regularly discarded lip tissue obtained from corrective surgeries to close the cleft lip represents an easily accessible and rich source for the isolation of primary fibroblasts. Primary fibroblasts have been described to show compelling similarities to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Hence, cleft lip and palate (CLP) lip-derived fibroblasts could be thought as an intriguing cell source for personalized regenerative therapies in CLP-affected patients.

Methods: Initially, we thoroughly characterized the fibroblastic nature of the lip-derived mesenchymal outgrowths by molecular and functional assays. Next, we compared their phenotype and genotype to that of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and of human lung-derived fibroblasts WI38, by assessing their morphology, surface marker expression, trilineage differentiation potential, colony-forming (CFU) capacity, and immunomodulation property. Finally, to better decipher the heterogeneity of our CLP cultures, we performed a single cell clonal analysis and tested expanded clones for surface marker expression, as well as osteogenic and CFU potential.

Results: We identified intriguingly similar phenotypic and genotypic properties between CLP lip fibroblasts and BM-MSCs, which makes them distinct from WI38. Furthermore, our own data in combination with the complex anatomy of the lip tissue indicated heterogeneity in our CLP cultures. Using a clonal analysis, we discovered single cell-derived clones with increased levels of the MSC markers CD106 and CD146 and clones with variabilities in their commitment to differentiate into bone-forming cells and in their potential to form single cell-derived colonies. However, we were not able to gain clones possessing superior MSC-like capacities when compared to the heterogeneous parental CLP population. Additionally, all clones could still generate contractile forces and retained robust levels of the fibroblast specific marker FSP1, which was not detectable in BM-MSCs.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that we isolate heterogeneous populations of fibroblasts from discarded CLP lip tissue, which show a prominently multipotent character in their entirety avoiding the need for elaborate subpopulation selections in vitro. These findings suggest that CLP lip fibroblasts might be a novel potential cell source for personalized regenerative medicine of clinical benefit for CLP patients.

eng
Keywords
  • Cleft lip/palate
  • Fibroblasts
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Single cell clonal analysis
  • Bone Marrow Cells
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cleft Lip / genetics
  • Cleft Lip / metabolism
  • Cleft Palate / genetics
  • Humans
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism
Citation (ISO format)
PARISI, Ludovica et al. Discovery and characterization of heterogeneous and multipotent fibroblast populations isolated from excised cleft lip tissue. In: Stem cell research & therapy, 2022, vol. 13, n° 1, p. 469. doi: 10.1186/s13287-022-03154-x
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Article (Published version)
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ISSN of the journal1757-6512
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