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Exploring the influence of placing bi-directional E-glass fibers as protective layer under a CAD-CAM resin composite on the fracture pattern

Published inDental materials
Publication date2023-09-19
First online date2023-09-19
Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the influence of the presence and position of bidirectional E-glass fibers under a CAD-CAM resin composite on the fracture pattern evaluated both after quasi-static mechanical loading and after fatigue.

Methods: Rectangular specimens (10 mm-long, 5 mm-large and 4.2 mm-thick) were prepared and divided into four groups (n = 30/group). The control group (C-Group) consisted of a 4.2 mm-thick layer of monolithic CAD/CAM resin composite resin (Cerasmart, GC). In the 3 other groups including the placement of a fiber layer (F-Groups), the CAD/CAM resin composite layer was reduced to 3-, 2- and 1-mm thickness (F3-, F2- and F1-Groups, respectively). Two bonded layers of bidirectional E-glass FRC (Dentapreg, ADM A.S.) were bonded underneath and a light-curable resin composite base (Gaenial Posterior, GC) was then added to reach a total thickness of 4.2 mm for all samples. In each group, half of the specimens (n = 15) were submitted to quasi-static mechanical loading to failure in a universal testing machine. The other half (n = 15) was subjected to cyclic isometric stepwise loading until failure or completion of 105000 cycles (5000 cycles at 500 N, followed by five stages of 20000 cycles at 750 N, 1000 N, 1250 N, 1500 N, and 1750 N). The data were analyzed by Weibull statistics for quasi-static loading, and by the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimation procedure after fatigue. All fractured specimens were studied using light and electron microscopy techniques, and the types of fracture were determined.

Results: For quasi-static mechanical loading, significant differences were observed for Weibull modulus and characteristic strength between groups, with values ranging from 10.8 to 22.4 for the former and from 2336.6 to 2974.7 for the latter. Also, survival after stepwise fatigue revealed statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.05), the lowest values of cycles before failure being observed for F1-Group - Median = 61223 (50415; 65446) - as compared to the other groups - C-Group: Median = 89005 (86189; 98195); F3-Group: Median = 85198 (77279; 87860); F2-Group: Median = 89306 (87454; 97024). Both in quasi-static loading and after fatigue, the observation of fracture modes revealed major differences. While all fractures were vertical (split) in C-Group, the majority of the specimens in F-Groups presented some degree of horizontal deflection of the crack. In all deviated fractures, fractographic analysis confirmed a toughening effect of the fiber layer.

Significance: The present in vitro work tends to show that the fracture pattern of CAD-CAM resin composites is favorably affected by the presence and position of an underlying bidirectional E-glass fiber layer. The placement of E-glass fibers under a CAD-CAM resin composite may therefore represent an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of catastrophic restoration failure, which could be integrated in the development of the new generation of indirect materials, possibly in 3D-printing approaches.

eng
Keywords
  • CAD-CAM
  • Fiber-reinforced composite
  • Fractography
  • Multi-layered composite restoration
Citation (ISO format)
SARATTI, Carlo Massimo et al. Exploring the influence of placing bi-directional E-glass fibers as protective layer under a CAD-CAM resin composite on the fracture pattern. In: Dental materials, 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2023.09.003
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ISSN of the journal0109-5641
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Creation09/25/2023 7:45:35 AM
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