Scientific article
Open access

Is scientific evidence enough? Using expert opinion to fill gaps in data in antimicrobial resistance research

Published inPloS one, vol. 18, no. 8, p. e0290464
Publication date2023-08-24
First online date2023-08-24


Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a global problem with large health and economic consequences. Current gaps in quantitative data are a major limitation for creating models intended to simulate the drivers of AMR. As an intermediate step, expert knowledge and opinion could be utilized to fill gaps in knowledge for areas of the system where quantitative data does not yet exist or are hard to quantify. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify quantifiable data about the current state of the factors that drive AMR and the strengths and directions of relationships between the factors from statements made by a group of experts from the One Health system that drives AMR development and transmission in a European context.


This study builds upon previous work that developed a causal loop diagram of AMR using input from two workshops conducted in 2019 in Sweden with experts within the European food system context. A secondary analysis of the workshop transcripts was conducted to identify semi-quantitative data to parameterize drivers in a model of AMR.

Main findings

Participants spoke about AMR by combining their personal experiences with professional expertise within their fields. The analysis of participants’ statements provided semi-quantitative data that can help inform a future of AMR emergence and transmission based on a causal loop diagram of AMR in a Swedish One Health system context.


Using transcripts of a workshop including participants with diverse expertise across the system that drives AMR, we gained invaluable insight into the past, current, and potential future states of the major drivers of AMR, particularly where quantitative data are lacking.

Citation (ISO format)
COUSINS, Melanie et al. Is scientific evidence enough? Using expert opinion to fill gaps in data in antimicrobial resistance research. In: PloS one, 2023, vol. 18, n° 8, p. e0290464. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0290464
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Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1932-6203

Technical informations

Creation08/28/2023 9:33:53 AM
First validation08/28/2023 11:07:07 AM
Update time08/28/2023 11:07:07 AM
Status update08/28/2023 11:07:07 AM
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