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Abnormalities of Cortical Sources of Resting State Alpha Electroencephalographic Rhythms are Related to Education Attainment in Cognitively Unimpaired Seniors and Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment

Published inCerebral cortex, vol. 31, no. 4, p. 2220-2237
Publication date2021-03-05
First online date2020-11-30
Abstract

In normal old (Nold) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) persons, a high cognitive reserve (CR) makes them more resistant and resilient to brain neuropathology and neurodegeneration. Here, we tested whether these effects may affect neurophysiological oscillatory mechanisms generating dominant resting state electroencephalographic (rsEEG) alpha rhythms in Nold and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (ADMCI). Data in 60 Nold and 70 ADMCI participants, stratified in higher (Edu+) and lower (Edu–) educational attainment subgroups, were available in an Italian–Turkish archive. The subgroups were matched for age, gender, and education. RsEEG cortical sources were estimated by eLORETA freeware. As compared to the Nold-Edu– subgroup, the Nold-Edu+ subgroup showed greater alpha source activations topographically widespread. On the contrary, in relation to the ADMCI-Edu– subgroup, the ADMCI-Edu+ subgroup displayed lower alpha source activations topographically widespread. Furthermore, the 2 ADMCI subgroups had matched cerebrospinal AD diagnostic biomarkers, brain gray–white matter measures, and neuropsychological scores. The current findings suggest that a high CR may be related to changes in rsEEG alpha rhythms in Nold and ADMCI persons. These changes may underlie neuroprotective effects in Nold seniors and subtend functional compensatory mechanisms unrelated to brain structure alterations in ADMCI patients.

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Keywords
  • Aging
  • Education attainment
  • Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography (eLORETA)
  • Mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (ADMCI)
  • Resting state electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms
  • Aged
  • Alpha Rhythm / physiology
  • Alzheimer Disease / physiopathology
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology
  • Amnesia / physiopathology
  • Amnesia / psychology
  • Cerebral Cortex / physiopathology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / physiopathology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / psychology
  • Educational Status
  • Electroencephalography / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Rest / physiology
  • Rest / psychology
Citation (ISO format)
BABILONI, Claudio et al. Abnormalities of Cortical Sources of Resting State Alpha Electroencephalographic Rhythms are Related to Education Attainment in Cognitively Unimpaired Seniors and Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment. In: Cerebral cortex, 2021, vol. 31, n° 4, p. 2220–2237. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhaa356
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Article (Published version)
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ISSN of the journal1047-3211
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