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Scientific article
Open access
English

Antibody response in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome related to COVID-19 (MIS-C) compared to children with uncomplicated COVID-19

Published inFrontiers in immunology, vol. 14, 1107156
Publication date2023-03-15
First online date2023-03-15
Abstract

Objectives

To comprehensively analyze the quality of the antibody response between children with Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and age-matched controls at one month after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and infected in the same time-period.

Methods

Serum from 20 MIS-C children at admission, and 14 control children were analyzed. Antigen specific antibody isotypes and subclasses directed against various antigens of SARS-CoV-2 as well as against human common coronavirus (HCoVs) and commensal or pathogenic microorganisms were assessed by a bead-based multiplexed serological assay and by ELISA. The functionality of these antibodies was also assessed using a plaque reduction neutralization test, a RBD-specific avidity assay, a complement deposition assay and an antibody-dependent neutrophil phagocytosis (ADNP) assay.

Results

Children with MIS-C developed a stronger IgA antibody response in comparison to children with uncomplicated COVID-19, while IgG and IgM responses are largely similar in both groups. We found a typical class-switched antibody profile with high level of IgG and IgA titers and a measurable low IgM due to relatively recent SARS-CoV-2 infection (one month). SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies of MIS-C children had higher functional properties (higher neutralization activity, avidity and complement binding) as compared to children with uncomplicated COVID-19. There was no difference in the response to common endemic coronaviruses between both groups. However, MIS-C children had a moderate increase against mucosal commensal and pathogenic strains, reflecting a potential association between a disruption of the mucosal barrier with the disease.

Conclusion

Even if it is still unclear why some children develop a MIS-C, we show here that MIS-C children produce higher titers of IgA antibodies, and IgG antibodies with higher functionality, which could reflect the local gastro-intestinal mucosal inflammation potentially induced by a sustained SARS-CoV-2 gut infection leading to continuous release of SARS-CoV-2 antigens.

eng
Keywords
  • MIS-C multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Antibody response
  • Commensals
  • Common coronavirus
  • Functional antibody
Citation (ISO format)
THIRIARD, Anaïs et al. Antibody response in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome related to COVID-19 (MIS-C) compared to children with uncomplicated COVID-19. In: Frontiers in immunology, 2023, vol. 14, p. 1107156. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1107156
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Identifiers
ISSN of the journal1664-3224
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Technical informations

Creation05/12/2023 12:33:15 PM
First validation05/15/2023 7:22:22 AM
Update time05/15/2023 7:22:22 AM
Status update05/15/2023 7:22:22 AM
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