Scientific article
Open access

The influence of age and gender on perception of orofacial esthetics among laypersons in Switzerland

Published inJournal of esthetic and restorative dentistry, vol. 34, no. 6, p. 959-968
Publication date2022-09
First online date2022-03-24

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perception and role of orofacial esthetics by laypersons, and how attitudes may be correlated with age and gender in Switzerland.

Material and methods: Self-administrated questionnaires (SAQ) were distributed both conventionally and digitally to Swiss residents over 16 years of age (range 16-99 years). The participants were identified in the medical practice, at an open house of the ZMK Bern, in elderly care centers, and via the internet (Facebook and Instagram). To verify that the participants were Swiss residents and laypersons, they were checked by an operator (conventional) or were provided an exact description of eligible participants at the beginning of the SAQ (digital). The SAQ included 30 questions with multiple-choice responses and visual analogue scales (0-100) divided into four sections regarding dental appearance with respect to body esthetics, partner selection, employment and career opportunities, and overall health/quality-of-life. For statistical analysis, respondents were segregated into two age groups (<25 years and ≥25 years) and into two gender groups (male and female). Descriptive analyses, the Fisher exact test, and Welch's t-test were applied (α = 0.05).

Results: Five hundred and two laypersons completed the SAQ. The study's hypothesis-that various age groups and genders have different perceptions of dental esthetics-was supported. The willingness to correct one's own dentition was lower among older participants (OR: 0.54; p = 0.001); charisma and dental esthetics were considered equally important with a trend toward charisma in both age groups (p = 0.003). The belief that excellent dentition improves employment chances at a job interview (OR: 0.47; p = 0.0003) was significantly lower among older participants, and the belief that dental correction would improve quality-of-life was significantly higher among older participants (OR: 1.81; p = 0.001). The assumption that individuals with attractive teeth appear happier was significantly lower among older respondents (OR: 0.67; p = 0.03). Women were less satisfied with their dental appearance and, proportionally, their willingness to receive correction was significantly higher (OR: 1.79; p = 0.01 and OR: 1.77; p = 0.002 relative to men, respectively). Moreover, male participants had a lower desire to have brighter teeth and undergo bleaching treatments (OR: 0.54; p = 0.002; OR: 0.53; p = 0.002). The proportion of men believing that having beautiful teeth improves attractiveness and employment chances was significantly lower (OR: 0.33; p = 0.02 and OR: 0.66; p = 0.04; respectively).

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this observational study, it was concluded that age and gender of laypersons in Switzerland have a significant impact on the perception of dental esthetics.

Clinical significance: Evaluating and quantifying perceptions of dental esthetics for daily life across various age groups and genders can improve clinicians' understanding of individual needs in order to offer patient-oriented dental care.

  • Attitude to health
  • Dental esthetics
  • Surveys and questionnaire
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Attitude to Health
  • Esthetics, Dental
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Perception
  • Sex Factors
  • Smiling
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Switzerland
  • Young Adult
Citation (ISO format)
ZAUGG, Fiona-Leandra et al. The influence of age and gender on perception of orofacial esthetics among laypersons in Switzerland. In: Journal of esthetic and restorative dentistry, 2022, vol. 34, n° 6, p. 959–968. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12906
Main files (1)
Article (Published version)
ISSN of the journal1496-4155

Technical informations

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First validation02/13/2023 4:01:00 PM
Update time03/16/2023 10:38:26 AM
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