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Scientific article
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Predictors of Gaming Disorder or Protective from It, in a French Sample: A Symptomatic Approach to Self-Regulation and Pursued Rewards, Providing Insights for Clinical Practice

Published inInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 19, no. 15, no. Global Health and Research Advances in Internet Addiction Disorders, 9476
First online date2022-08-02
Abstract

Gaming disorder (GD) is a new health condition still requiring a lot of evidence established around its underlying and related psychological mechanisms. In our study we focused on Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs), a specific very popular and engaging game genre, to determine that benefit, motivation and control aspects could be predictive of a dysfunctional engagement in gaming. In total, 313 participants were recruited from private forums of gamers between May 2009 and March 2010. They filled out a questionnaire on their socio-demographic data and their weekly gaming time. They also completed different psychometric assessments such as the DSM IV-TR criteria for substance dependence adapted to gaming such as the Dependence Adapted Scale (DAS), the external rewards they expected from gaming (External Motives), the expected internal reward they expected from gaming (Internal Motives), the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (ZSSS), and the Barratt impulsiveness Scale (BIS-10). Results showed that some psychological factors related to online gaming represented risk factors for GD in participants (i.e., competition and advancement motives, reduced anxiety, solace, greater personal satisfaction, and sense of power), whereas some others were found to be protective factors from GD (i.e., recreation, enjoyment and experience seeking) in participants. Additionally, the study found that disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, thrill and adventure seeking, and high impulsivity were correlated to GD in participants. In conclusion, not only motives for gaming and impulsivity could be predictors for GD, but maladaptive coping strategies based on experienced relief in-game from negative feelings (anxiety and boredom) or experienced improvement in-game of self-perception (personal satisfaction, sense of power) could play as well a role of negative reinforcers for GD. Some benefits from gaming, typically entertainment and enjoyment, are shown to be protective factors from GD, playing the role of positive reinforcing factors. They are worthy of being identified and promoted as functional gaming habits. These findings can feed the clinical and health promotion fields, with a more in-depth understanding of diverse psychological factors in gamers, identifying those at risk for GD and those protective from it. The current work can foster a more balanced approach towards gaming activities, taking their opportunities for mankind and controlling for their adverse effects in some individuals.

eng
Keywords
  • Gaming disorder
  • MMORPG
  • Motivations
  • Benefits
  • Sensation seeking
  • Control
  • Impulsivity
  • BIS-10
Funding
  • Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique - [N/2009/54]
Citation (ISO format)
ACHAB, Sophia et al. Predictors of Gaming Disorder or Protective from It, in a French Sample: A Symptomatic Approach to Self-Regulation and Pursued Rewards, Providing Insights for Clinical Practice. In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2022, vol. 19, n° 15, p. 9476. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19159476
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Creation08/02/2022 1:28:00 PM
First validation08/02/2022 1:28:00 PM
Update time03/16/2023 8:44:44 AM
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